Employee job satisfaction at Tripti enterprise pvt. Ltd. Gangtok, Sikkim

Dr. Pradip Kumar Das
Assistant Professor Department of Management, Sikkim University

The assessment of job satisfaction through employee anonymous surveys became common since 1930s. Job satisfaction  is  considered  as  a  key  issue  where  efforts  are  taken  and  programs  are  initiated.  If  an  employee  is  not  satisfied  with  the  job  there  are  chances  for  absenteeism,  low  turnover ,  low  productivity,  committing  of  mistakes,  diverting  energy  for  different  types  of  conflicts. Keeping  this  thing  in  view  all  organizations  are  trying  to  identify  the areas  where satisfaction  to  be improved  to  get  out  of  the  above dangers.  In   this  connection  a  survey  is  conducted  in  TRIPTIS  ENTERPRISE  PVT   LTD  GANGTOK  to  identify   the  level  of  satisfaction on  various  job  related  factors. 

Role of women in ancient Kerala; A historical perspective

Dr.Sumi Mary Thomas
Assistant Professor, Dept. of History CMS College, Kottayam Kerala, 686001 India

Throughout the ages, women all over the world have played great roles in shaping the destiny of the world. In God’s eyes men and women are equal. But in ‘God’s Own Country’, Kerala, this was not the case from time immemorial. Today’s stereotyped image of Kerala can be traced from the historical evolution of the past. The status of women in Kerala has been subject to great changes. Here is a peep through the traditions and customs prevailed in the ancient Indian Society. This paper is attempted to study the socio economic conditions of women in ancient Kerala

Gender equality and women empowerment: has the development been sustainable

Roopal Chauhan
Alpha 1 Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201308

The terms gender equality as well as women empowerment are household terms in the present time with almost everyone aware of their rights. Gender equality dates back to early vedic period and is still found in India to a very large extent despite measures taken at national as well as international levels. The discrimination can be witnessed in the form of education opportunities, lack of decision making by women, difference in pay scale, physical abuse, limited access to healthcare facilities, child marriage, etc.  The discrimination is imbibed into the very social set up and the efforts of women are ignored. The study looks into the real state of claimed gender equality in India in personal, social, and cultural, and political context the taking into account variables that would suitably depict the condition of women. The aim of the study is to take account of the actual state of gender equality and women empowerment in India that is almost always promised by at the national and international levels. By the end of the study it would be easier to deduce whether gender inequality has been removed with empowerment of women or not.  

A study on professional commitment of special educators, teaching children with special needs

Dr. Smita Saxena and Debasis Maity

The present study was conducted on a sample of 60 school teachers teaching in 5 special schools of west Midnapur district in West Bengal. The sample was selected randomly. Data was collected with the help of Professional Commitment Scale for Teachers (Kaur, Ranu, & Brar, 2013). The findings reveal that male and female school teachers differ significantly on professional commitment.The effectiveness of education is very much dependent of the effectiveness of its teachers. A teacher is the single most important factor in the success of a student and thereby the entire society. Recognizing the importance of teacher, The National Policy on education (1986) has rightly remarked: “No system of education can rise above the level of its teachers.” And Commitment is the most important quality of a teacher. A teacher’s work is not limited to the classroom only, but his work is set within the structures and environments of organizations, such as schools and education systems. Therefore, professional commitment could be discussed in terms of organizational dimensions of affective, continuance and normative commitment (Meyer & Allen, 1991). The profession of teaching is a noble profession and involves a multifaceted amalgamation of working relationships with not only the organization, but with a number of other participants, such as the parents, students and colleagues. Therefore, professional commitment is persuasive for both teachers and the educational system. According to Arya (2012), professional commitment of the teachers is to devote personal time and dedicated towards his profession. Dave (1998) mentioned five areas towards which teachers should be committed. These areas are (i) commitment to a learner, (ii) commitment to the society, (iii) commitment to the profession, (iv) commitment to achieve excellence and (v) commitment to Scholarly basic human values. The role of a teacher today is very complicated because of various new demands on him. And in case of special education this role becomes more challenging and demanding.Special education teachers work with students who have a wide range of learning, mental, emotional, and physical disabilities. They adapt general lessons and teach various subjects, like reading, writing and calculations to students with mild and moderate disabilities. They also teach basic skills, like literary and communication techniques, to students with severe disabilities. 

Cotton cultivation and its sustainability in Malwa region of Punjab

Gursewak Singh and Lakhveer Singh
Department of Geography, Punjabi University, Patiala

Cotton is an important cash crop and source of livelihood for nearly 15 million farmers in 10 Indian states. In India, 60% of the total cropped area is classified as dry land or rain fed area representing 40% of the total agricultural production. Punjab (8.51%) is one the major producers of the cotton in India during 2012-13. Cotton one the principal crops in India and enjoys pride of place and unique position in our country. Against this background, this study analyses the production of cotton in Punjab province using the district level disintegrated data of yield, area, fertilizer, climate variables (temperature and precipitation) from 1994-95 to 2014-15. Separate analysis for each district is performed in the study. Statistical technique has been used to draw the results in the study. The results show significant impact of temperature and precipitation on cotton production. The negative impacts of temperature are more striking for Bathinda and Mansa districts. The impacts of physical variables, area, fertilizers and technology are positive and highly significant. The results imply educating farmers about the balanced use of fertilizer and generating awareness about the climate change could be feasible and executable strategies to moderate the adverse impacts of climate change to a reasonable extent. The present paper is an attempt to show the spatial pattern of cotton cultivation along with temporal changes and its future sustainability. Variations of crop production in response to fast changing physical and socio-cultural conditions are studied from 1994-95 to 2014-15.

An Analysis of the Role of Lok Adalat in Awarding Compensation to the victims of Road Accidents in India

Mr. Amit Nag
Research Scholar of PhD Department of Law, Deshbandhu Chittranjan School of Legal Studies, Assam University, Silchar


One  must  learn  to  negotiate  in  a  manner  that  is  less  competitive  and adversarial, thereby invoking the potential for cooperation. By working together as “joint problem  solvers”  seeking  joint  solutions  and  not  working  against  one  another,  the participants  can  “enlarge  the  pie”  that  is  to  be  divided.  This can be  done  either  by negotiation,  or  with  the  help  of  an  impartial  third  party  who  will  act  as  mediator. If anyone has a problem with a person or organisation one deals with regularly for example a  neighbor,  ADR  can  mean  a  better,  longer-lasting  solution  to  one’s  problem.  It may also result in better communication with them in the future. The non adjudicatory dispute resolution  methods  are  useful  not  only  for  small  claims  like  motor  accidents,  family disputes and petty crimes but also as an alternative dispute resolution mechanism for the most complex matters, including those involving environmental disputes and intellectual property  law  disputes  which  were  previously  considered  to  be  irreconcilable.  In the emerging  global  markets  there  is  need  to  resolve  disputes  quickly  and  inexpensively  as well as amicably, suitably and productively, in order to maximize long-term interests and to  maintain  continuing  commercial  relationships.  One can also use some  ADR  schemes as well as going to court or a tribunal. For example, mediation can help everyone focus on the issues that are causing the problem, making it easier for one to reach an agreement or for a judge to make a decision.

Semantic Web and E-resource Management: Applications of RDF as an E-resource Discovery Tools in the National Digital Library of India

Sudeshna Karmakar
Librarian Kendriya Vidyalaya, Boudh, Odisha-762014


Semantic web technologies are popular in this time to find out the applications within the digital libraries and other context of e-resources. This paper mainly discusses the different components of semantic web and Resource Description Framework (RDF), a key enabling language of semantic web. Explore the practical applications of RDF in the Dublin Core and how it can be used in the National Digital Library of India one of the major implementations in the recent times and how these specifications used as an e-resource discovery tool. Also, develop a model of National Digital Library of India regarding their RDF or Metadata Status.

Technology-Based Banking Services An Empirical Analysis of Customer Service Perception on Selected Public Sector Banks in India

Dr.Vikram K. Joshi, Dr. Vijay D. Joshi,

Indian Banks have experienced drastic changes from traditional banking to customer-centric convenience banking in recent years.  With the adoption of Core Banking Solutions (CBS), the banks are able to enhance the customer convenience through ‘anywhere’ and ‘anytime’ banking to ensure the comfort feature to the customers.  The Indian banks have deployed IT enabled and processes to maximize revenue, give better customer experience, and manage enterprise risks by optimizing the cost structure.  To remain relevant in market, several public sector banks are adopting digitization of various services to serve customers effectively.  But, still there exists a wide gap in technology implementation capabilities across the banking sector.  Hence, it becomes necessary to analyze the perception of customers about service quality delivered through technology-based banking services (TBBS) offered by Indian Public Sector banks and the customer satisfaction for necessary improvements to the bankers.  The study administered SSTQUAL scale developed by Lin & Hsieh (2006) on 178 customers of selected public sector banks from the Indian Banking Industry chosen using convenience sampling method.  The customers’ satisfaction and customer service quality perception towards the public sector banks in India who adopted TBBS is evaluated based on empirical analysis and the gaps are identified for necessary improvements.  The study concludes that service quality dimensions – functionality, assurance, design and customization combined together are significantly influencing the customer satisfaction in case of public sector banks and combination of TBBSQUAL dimensions – functionality, enjoyment, assurance, design, convenience and customization significantly influences CBI of overall public sector banks. 

Behavioral finance: a study on the attitude of Indian investors

Mr. Vincent Sahil Abraham & Ms. Manisha Raj
Amity University 192-C, Pocket J and K, Dilshad Garden, Delhi- 110095

India in the past few years has become one of the fastest developing nations in the world and has shown dependence on its financial markets and instituitions.The present study is based on an assumption that the Indian investor is categorically influenced by the likeness of a psychological bias which greatly influences his investment decisions. Investors have always been thought of rational beings who take decisions in a logical manner of things but this paper challenges this thought process and puts a big question on the very foundations of financial economics. Thus, it is very necessary to analyze such biases using statistical tools such as Chi square analysis, regression analysis, correlation of dependent and independent variables, etc. using the SPSS software in an attempt to find substantial claim for the assumption to be stated as a fact. The results of this study will have a scope for budding behavioral economists in order to better analyze the behavior of investors in the Indian financial markets

Behavioural finance: a study on the attitude and behaviour of young consumers in India

Kamayani Mittal
Student , B.A (Hons) Economics G-9, Second Floor, Sector-22, Noida (201301)


With a rapid development in technology and opening up of new channels of purchase, there has been a paradigm shift in consumers shopping behaviour. There are certain factors that decide the purchasing attitude of consumers between online and offline markets. This study aims to analyse the shopping decisions of individuals and the factors that influence online purchase. The empirical section of the study is based upon primary data collected from 140 respondents through a detailed questionnaire. The study talks about the factors that influence purchasing decisions and the degree of risk involved in online services. The outcome of the analysis is based upon descriptive and regression analysis which highlights the relation between the psychological characteristics of young consumers and their shopping behaviour. 

A Short Study On The Levels Of Relational Aggression Among Undergraduate Male And Female Students In A Metropolitan City (Kolkata)

Debanjana Basu & Dr. Ishita Chatterjee
West Bengal, India


This study aims to observe the effect of studying in the different academic courses (science, humanities and commerce) and gender differences on relational aggression scale among students pursuing graduation in the city colleges. For this purpose, a sample of 180 subjects were selected from the final session in the age range of 18 to 20 years, out of which 90 were male students and remaining 90 were female students, 60 subjects representing each course respectively. Rapport was established with the sample to the extent possible and data were collected using the Relational Aggression Subscale developed by Loudin, Loukas, and Robinson (2003). Mean, S.D and one-way ANOVA were computed on the summarized scores which revealed that though there has been no significant effect of studying in the different degree courses on relational aggression, gender did have a significant effect. A significant combinational effect of gender and studying different courses on relational aggression was also identified in the given sample. Findings from this study corroborate previous researches from across different parts of the world that have underscored the relationship between gender and relational aggression. However, it fails to show any significant effect of pursuing academic courses on the scale of relational aggression in respect to the sample selected leaving researchers with the question to be investigated in future.

Buddhist art and architecture during Bagan dynasty

M.Phil Student Department of History, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow (U.P.) India

Bagan was a capital of ancient Myanmar Kings. It is 16 square miles on the eastern bank of Ayeyarwady River in Myingyan district of Mandalay division. Its geographical coordinates are iLatitude21° i10' iN andLongitude i94° i51' iE. Some scholars suggested that Bagan derived from Pyugama (Pyu village) lying on the communicating road betweeen Halin and Pyay. (Pyugama changed to Pyugam then Pugam and later Pagan so on). The inspritions of Bagan usually refer to it by its classical name Arimaddanapura, “The country of trampler on enemies”.The Mon inscriptions of King Kyansittha’s biograpy near Shwezigon pagoda give “Tattadesa” as another name of Arimaddanapura. Tattadesa is translated “the parched country” by Hall, Luce, etc. Perhabs Bagan was already founded in the middle of 9th century A.D. Nevertheless, the earliest statements about Baga together with her name are found in two Campa inscriptions, which can safely be taken as 1044 A.D. Bagan period last for about 300 years from the reign of Anawrahta (A.D. 1044-1077) down to that of Saw Monnit (A.D. 1325-1368). During that period, Theravada Buddhism became the principle religion. However, there were references to Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism as well. Under the instruction of Therevada Buddhism, Bagan people realized that paramis must be fulfilled for salvation. Among ten, as dana-paramiis the earliest perfection to be fulfilled, the practice of charity was obviously the most popular for Bagan people then. Their meritorius deeds were mostly building of religious establishments.The iprincipal iforms iof iBuddhist iart iinvolve ithe iconstruction iof imonuments, ieither istupas ior itemples, iwhich iembody ithe imain iartistic imedia: iarchitecture, ipainting, iand isculpture, iin iaddition ito ithe idecorative iarts.Along ithe isouthern iBurma icoastline ithe iMon icivilization ienjoyed igood imaritime icontacts iwith iIndia iand iactedasia iconduit ifor ithe iingress iof iBuddhism iinto ithe iAyeyarwady ivalley.The iMonpossessed itheir iown iscript, iand itheir iknowledge iof iPali itexts iwas isignificant ito ithe idevelopment iof iart iat iBagan.

Present Status of Women Empowerment in Kashmir with special reference to Srinagar District of Kashmir Valley

Zahoor Ahmad & Prof. (Dr). Dinesh Mandot
Department of History, Bhagwant University Ajmer (India)


Historically women have been worst victims of violence and other social evils. The role of women has been confined to child rearing and housekeeping having least decision making powers. Women are becoming the victims due to domestic violence and other social practices .the conflicting situation in Jammu and Kashmir has snatched the women’s right. Women are mostly identified with silence and considered as the weaker. Based on sample of 100 respondents and using an intensive approach through the case study method the study has been carried out in the rural and urban areas of Srinagar district. The focus of this paper is to highlight the problems of women in Kashmir and to trace the attitude of family members towards women in the study area. The authors found that these variables have a significant impact on women in Kashmir. 

Study habits of tenth standard students of rural and urban school

Dr. Alka
Associate Professor, Department of Home Science, Vaishali Mahila College, Hajipur, B.R.A. Bihar University Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India


The research aims to explore study habits of high school children. Furthermore, an attempt has been made to see whether any difference exists between urban children and rural children considering seven domains using a standard study habit inventory. The sample included total 200 children, 100 boys and 100 girls of class 10. The data was collected and analyzed on the basis of methodology .The main objective is to ear mark the problem areas and environment mostly affect the study habits of the students. The study will help to identify the domain and an early intervention can help students to improve their study habits for better performance and to improve their academic achievement.

Role of HR practices in employer branding

Dr. Anupama Sharma
Assistant Professor, Maharaja Surajmal Institute,C-4,Janakpuri,New Delhi-110058


Today’s Corporate culture is very competitive, challenging and dynamic. There is a cut throat competition in corporate entities around world to achieve targets. Human resources are very pivotal for success of any corporate in today’s competitive environment.  Highly skilled workers  are the first choice of every organization. A well trained, motivated workforce makes it possible to achieve the organization’s success. Now there is a need  for every company to establish themselves as a brand  so that they can attract highly skilled and talented persons for their companies. Employees branding is the base of Employer branding who work 24X7 hours for their employers to create a name for their company. Present paper tries to highlight the need of Employer Branding, problems associated with it and also to understand certain issues associated with it. It will further help in understanding the role of employer branding in sustaining the talent and attracting the high talented staff which serves as an assets for  an organization  and will help them to achieve core competency and competitive advantage for the corporate.

Assessment of financial restructuring with context to capital structure concepts

Dr. Yuvraj D. Nalwade, Dr. Mahavir.M. Shetiya, Dr. Santosh Parakh


The capital is an initial requirement of any business. Capital is a required amount, which is either in form of money or money’s worth, it means company does not need to raise or fulfill the requirement of capital through borrowing long term debt or issuing equity always. As in now modern era company has different alternatives to raise the funds andto operate the financial restructuring in such a way to get better outcome to minimize cost of capital. In this paper researchers covered the study about financial restructuring which primarily contains equity capital and debt capital. This study concerned with review of different types of financial restructuring.After this study, the researchersfound that company can raise funds or required amount of capital without raising debt and equity but they should have proper financial restructuring for the same.

Influence Of Childhood Environment On The Vision Of Tagore

Tanusweta Chattopadhyay
Ph.D. Scholar Visva-Bharati University West Bengal India

One can not read or internalize fully an artist’s mind or line of thinking but we can try to do it by following him step by step through his creations & also knowing about all the environment that was associated with the growing phase of the genius like Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore. Here we will limit ourselves to his childhood’s influences study. Whether regarding to his family, culture, social aspects, educational backgrounds or political scenario of that time or through each and every possible history available we have to try to draw the pillar lines which actually made an artist individually ‘The Artist’. Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore is one of the greatest poet, composer, philosopher, artist of all time, he is not only globally well known but because of his versatile excellence in each field he touched, became the name that is still mesmerizing  each corner of the world even today with the same refreshing aesthetical richness & modernity. Quest for his superb brilliance & excellence in art or literature are still raising their unsolved curiosity to know him better more than ever. Here in this present paper we will try to analyze his childhood influences, which played probably the most important role in his vision making process, and above all without whom he probably could not reach all over the world so definitely as he did.
As we all know childhood environment of Tagore had built the first impressions of the creator’s imaginary world or the journey of his searching soul, and it was the phase which made him color that world of abstract into real so well as time goes gradually, that it is still wondering billion of people. This phase of life usually has the most important role to play in making imaginative personality, which is very important to have as an artist, and more or less it helped him the most in shaping up his adult individuality, so let us lighten up with Rabindranath Tagore’s background story in a brief but fruitful manner in light of his own creations and written memories.

Attitude of consumers towards alternative fuel vehicles

Ms. Aditi Singh & Ms. Manisha Raj
Amity School of Economics Amity University, Noida, U.P.


Tending to natural issues requires extensive scale change endeavors in the vehicle segment. Numerous administrations, empowering feasible portability, see alternative fuel vehicles as an essential piece of an innovation portfolio focused at lessening contaminating discharges. In any case, shoppers' selection of alternative fuel vehicles is blocked by complex specialized and financial angles. The curiosity of this examination is to expressly investigate the effect of age on customers' dispositions towards alternative fuel vehicles and break down the dimension of information and the discernments that they have of alternative fuel vehicles. For this purpose, the type of research that is to be used in the paper is secondary. We distinguish the principle concerns identified with alternative fuel vehicles and recommend measures to defeat these worries. The mindfulness about new items among the customers affects their conduct in the long haul. The customers with information about items build up a mentality towards explicit items. A superior comprehension of the impacts of various ages on frame of mind forms is critical for structuring progressively powerful private and open methodologies for alternative fuel vehicles' advancement over an assortment of buyers. At the end of the study we will be able to assess the consumers’ perception towards alternative fuel vehicles and the parameters they consider while purchase as well as suggest appropriate improvements in the existing infrastructure.

Performance Evaluation of Food Processing Industries in India with Multi-Criteria Decision Technique of SAW & TOPSIS with CRITIC Based Weight Determination.

Avinash V. Raikar
Associate Professor, CES College of Arts & Commerce, Cuncolim, Salcete, Goa. 403703


The food processing industry has a special role to play in the agriculturally dominant country like India. India’s dream of rural transformation can be achieved only if the food processing industry develops in the countryside. Since independence in spite of encouraging policy perused by the government food processing sector has not developed to the extent required and as a result every year agricultural produce worth of Rs. 92,651 crores get wasted. Hence, it is essential to develop food processing industry India. At present, there are about 39319 registered units that produce an aggregate output of approximately $ 144.5 billion. It employs approximately 1.77 million workers. In this study performance of 17 companies from the food processing sector are evaluated on the basis of financial ratios that broadly cover liquidity, solvency, stability, debt-coverage and management efficiency. Using the average for the period 2009-2018 the study evaluates the performance of selected companies operating under food processing sector by using MCDM method of SAW and TOPSIS. The weights of the criteria’s are objectively determined by the CRITIC method. The study identifies the five best-performing companies for portfolio investment.

Modern Advertising Breaking the Stereotypes

Dr Kukreja Sumita
Assistant Professor, Maharaja Surajmal Institute

Indian advertisements that were once under criticism for having pictured the stereotypes more dominantly have spun around to accept that its time that the age old taboos, myths and stereotypes are broken. Rejoicing the culture, heritage, and the beautiful diversity we have. It’s not about ushering in change but it’s about accepting things the way they are. Today ads are about celebration, appreciation of what exists and most of all embracing the diversity.
The paper discusses in length about how such a change took roots and evolved into its current state of being and along with the impact that it has created. This trend has really created waves in today’s world, where the world has shrunk thanks to the proximity brought about by the communication channels especially through internet. These TVC’s have gone viral for the very reason that it embraces a change that is most sought after and welcomed in a generation that craves to have a modern outlook. Apart from this there are a number of real life examples that have been used to discuss the issues. Some of the stereotypes that have been focused on revolve around- gender, race, language, religion, caste etc. The pure focus is on how such ads have defined themselves and how they will continue to create a positive impact on the society, will there be only social issues shown or will there be a lighter note with a message also is presented. And is it really relevant to have a script be presented that is very different from the product/services being publicized? The paper has been compiled into chapters starting from this very page of introduction. It later proceeds to show the ad agencies involved in the promotion of the cause & effect marketing strategy along with the companies that took the bold decisions to portray their products and services as an invisible focal point.Addressing these questions we will move forward to come to a conclusion on how relevant modern advertising really is in breaking stereotypes in India.

India as a cashless economy- with special reference to Sweden

Simran Agarwal
Asst. Professor Manisha Raj Amity School of Economics Amity University Sector 125, Noida


The research paper focuses on the current position of cashless India and what are the measures adopted by the government in order to improve the position of India as a cashless economy. India is a cash dominant country and going cashless is a challenging task. Due to lack of cyber security, poverty and illiteracy in India, it is highly challenging to make dream of cashless India come true. Major progress towards this goal was made in late 2016, when the government took steps to demonetize the country. Now, even small retailers and shop owners are using cashless models like Paytm for transactions. Under digital India programme, a key vision area is to provide with better and widespread digital infrastructure as a utility to every citizen, starting form delivering services to 1.3 billion citizens to promote and enhance cashless transactions. Going cashless will reduce cash related robbery and corruption and will also attract various foreign investors into the country.

Impact of Inquiry Based Learning on Achievement in Physics

Harshalatha M V and Dr.Umadevi M.R.
Department of studies in Education, Davanagere University Davangere, Karnataka


The study was conducted to develop the inquiry based learning programme for teaching physics, and experimenting it on the  students studying in eighth standard and finding its impact on achievement in Physics.. “pretest-post test parallel equivalent groups experimental design” was followed for this study. After comparing the pretest and post test scores of both the experimental and control groups and applying statistical techniques, it reflected that there exists significant difference between the two groups. The students learning through inquiry based learning programme prepared by researcher were found to be better in their achievement in physics than the students learning through the traditional method of learning.

Life Long Learning and the Role of Public Library

Dr. Nimai Shit
Deputy University Librarian University of Calcutta


The study investigates the effort of public library towards helping people developing motivation for lifelong learning. Structured questionnaire based survey method was employed to gather data from the library professionals in charge of five town libraries. The data gathered from the surveyed town libraries were analysed and it was found that public libraries provide various services to support lifelong learning. However, due to several constraints, the libraries are not able to offer all the facilities needed to create the desired environment that inculcate lifelong learning. The paper is the first of its kind to study the five town libraries, particularly in respect to examine role of libraries in helping people of all ages to developing lifelong learning. The present research may guide other researchers to carry out survey in other regions and among rural libraries as well.

Bank group-wise status of non-performing assets in Indian banking sector

Dr.K.Sudarsan and Mr.Kathari Santosh

The primary activity of banks is collecting deposits from the public and turnover the same by way of lending to enterprises. When the borrower of the loan is not able to make repayment of the loan, the loan account turns as Non-Performing Assets (NPAs). The NPAs is the cause for ill-health of banks. The study is based on secondary data and study period is 1996-97 to 2015-16. It used the percentages, coefficient of variance and correlation. The Private Sector Banks and Foreign Banks released advances as per the guidelines to control the NPAs. In the crisis (2008-09) the Private Sector Banks are functioning well. So it is better to follow the Private Sector Banks to control the NPAs in Scheduled Commercial Banks, Private Sector Banks and Foreign Banks or improve the screening and monitoring.

The Evolution of Delhi Metropolitan Area: A Historical, Demographic and Geographical Perspective

Dr. Naveen Chandra Singh
Department of Geography M.M.H. College Ghaziabad-201009 Uttar Pradesh, India

Delhi, an ancient city with its long history bears the complexities, the contradictions, the glory and the dynamism.  The evolution of Delhi from a small town in ancient times to a modern metropolitan city has been in several stages in a long time. In addition to the centuries of historical events, Geographical factors are much more relevant and played a vital role in the evolution of Delhi as a metropolitan area. The present study has been undertaken to identify and analyze the geographic features which are responsible for the evolution of Delhi as a Metropolitan city. The study is based on the primary and secondary data, collected from different sources. The study finds that Geographical features of Delhi, which range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age have largely influenced the evolution of the city, meanwhile these are intensively altered by human activities especially urbanization. 

Women and Environment: A study on the Women of the Mishing Tribe of Assam

Dr. Sweta Mahanta
Department of History Assistant Profesor, Darrang College Tezpur, Sonitpur, Assam, India Pin code -784001

Like all tribal communities of India, the Mishing community of Assam has a deep linkage to their natural environment which shaped their socio-economic and religious life. Women are the forbearers of a particular culture and their dependence on the environment for this matter cannot be denied. Right from procuring firewood, food and drinking water to their observance of customs and traditions, the Mishing women have been closely associated with the surrounding environment. In such a scenario the degradation of the natural environment for natural or man-made factors takes a heavy toll on the livelihood practices as well as the general well being of the Mishing people in general and the women folk in particular. The aim of this paper is to bring out the co-relation the Mishing women has with nature and to find out the consequences of the degradation of environment on the life of these women.

Interface between international trade and environment

Neelam Rai


The environmental protection is one of the core missions for humanity that involves cooperation in the international society including the possible use of trade to persuade environmentally friendly behaviour. On the other hand, unlimited free trade damages the environment through a lack of individual’s acceptance of norms and sets of values of the environmental costs caused by manufacturing. All in all, recuperative mechanisms are necessary at least to ensure its environmental outlook. World trade development has raised the issue of the relationship between trade and the environment. Like Is trade good or bad for the environment or not. The production of goods those are imported and exported, like others production, will often have environmental effects. However, will these effects increase or decrease with expanded trade or not. Will they affect the exporting nation, the importing nation, or the world as a whole or not. And whose responsibility is it to respond to environmental problems related with trade? Such questions have received a greater attention in recent years. 

The Impact of Higher Education on Economic Growth of India and Sectoral Performance

Shefali Chib & Dr Mahua Bhattacharjee
Department of Economics Amity University, Noida

In today’s world, knowledge is empowerment. The importance of higher education is increasingly growing as major determinant of accumulating human capital. It plays an important role in improving the quality of economy in the modern world. The main aim of the paper is to see that how higher education effects the economic growth of India. It also attempts to see the impact of higher education attainment on performance of different sectors of India. The paper strives to recognize the shortcomings in quality of higher education system, which influences sectoral performance. It concludes by giving suggestions to overcome the weaknesses in the quality of higher education system to make Indian higher education system efficient and ensure economic and sectoral growth.

Impact of Motivation Factors on Employees Perception Towards Sustainable Environmental Practices in Chain Managed and Standalone Hotels in India:A Case Study

Jyoti Chaturvedi & Dr. Shuchi Singhal

Purpose- The study aims to identify the motivation factors influencing employees perception towards successful implementation of sustainable environmental practices from the Literature review and then tries to find out correlation between these motivation factors and hotel’s management model and further to evaluate if there is any association between demographic factors of age, education, tenure and department of the employees and these motivation factors. Methodology- This paper uses the case study method by collecting questionnaires from the employees of two major 5 star hotels under two different management model-the chain managed hotel chosen is an IHG Hotel that is Hotel Holiday Inn and the standalone hotel taken is The Orchid Hotel – the first eco-hotel of India. The chi-square test of association and correlation analysis has been done Findings-The findings show an association between the motivation factor Environmental concern and Hotel’s management model and no association of age with motivation factors. Education has correlation with Incentives & Rewards and Environmental concern. There is an association between incentives and rewards and employees’ tenure. Further, there is correlation of  all the motivation factors except Job satisfaction with employees department . Practical Implications- The study provides hotel owners and management, an insight to employees perceptions and develop strategies so that employees can focus on effective implementation of Hotel’s Sustainable environmental practices by providing frequent environmental trainings , attractive incentives and creating more awareness about Hotel’s environmental policy leading to employees job satisfaction and achieving Hotel’s environmental resource conservation targets. Originality/Value - The study is first of its kind in exploring the association of motivation factors with Management model of the hotel and any influence of demographic aspects on these motivation factors .

Understanding socio-economic and health conditions of women manual scavengers in India

Manisha Suryabhan Meshram
Doctoral Scholar Centre of Social Medicine and Community Health School of Social Sciences Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067, India

Manual scavenging is a barbaric-caste-based practice permeated across Indian states. Dalit community who are engaged in this occupation become unwanted, stigmatised, and eventually excluded from the mainstream society. In addition, these people because of their close contact with human excreta face serious catastrophic health shocks. This paper therefore intends to understand socio-economic and health issues of women manual scavengers in India. Employing the exploratory method, the paper reveals that manual scavenging is a women-centric occupation, for around 98 percent of manual scavengers in India are women who clean, carry and dispose more than 95 percent of human excreta. Nevertheless, women engaged in the dehumanizing task of manual scavenging have hardly received any attention from policy-makers or politicians. The paper underscores that the absence of political-will to adopt or implement legislative efforts, stigmatizing attitude towards women-engaged in manual scavenging, and absence of alternative livelihood opportunities are accountable for the continued practice of manual scavenging in India.

A Study on the Socio- economic Condition of Tiwa Primary School Students with Special Reference to Morigaon District of Assam, India

Dipika Boruah & Prof. Polee Saikia
Deptt. Of Education,G.U.

Socio- economic status is a combined unit of a family demography, familyeducation, occupation and income level which help to determine the progress of an individual. The role of socioeconomic condition cannot be denied as it has a great effect on personality, learning and development of the individual and his academic achievement. Tiwa is a leading tribal community found in the districts Morigaon,Assam.   They are medium statured, strong built and generally white complexioned people which are the characteristics features of the Mongoloids. Tiwas are economically very poor. Schools have greater responsibilities than ever before to help for the better achievement as well as for appropriate behaviors which may be beneficial for the society. Thus better classroom achievement is one of the unique requirements for school pupils. It deserves special care and attention. It is rightly said by the Kothari commission that the destiny of India is shaped in her classroom. In the present study an attempt has been made to study aboutSocio Economic Conditions of Tiwa students at primary level in Morigaon district of Assam.

A Study on Digital Marketing

Ismailamiya and Dr.P.Ashok Kumar

Digital marketing is a day by day increasing in India with fast pace. Many Indian companies are using digital marketing for advantage. In digital marketing success of marketing movement cannot be exclusively achieved. Rather for success of any marketing operation it should be completely tie together the capabilities of various marketing techniques available within both the traditional and modern marketing in India. As digital marketing is gaining a lot of importance as a marketing technique, it is important to understand the difference between the two of them. It is necessary to understand that they might be related to each other but there is a subtle difference between the two of them and this is what the article explains. Digital marketing is the avenue of electronic communication which is used by the marketer’s new technology and new thinking to endorse the goods and the services towards the marketplace. The supreme purpose of the digital marketing is a concerned with consumers and allows the customers satisfaction to intermingle with the product by virtue of digital media. This editorial concentrates on the importance of digital promotion for both customer’s satisfaction and marketers. Digital revolution enables implementation of new models of relationships with consumers, what is a challenge for enterprises, which are willing to increase their market share. Smart phones and social media exerted certain impact on dynamic development of a digital marketing. This study shows precautions to be taken by new products for effective implementation of digital marketing to reap tremendous potential to increase in sales in more online marketing.

Whose Decision? Who are Making? In the Context of Women Political Participation in North East India

Dr. Mahuya Roy Karmakar
Political Science Former Research Scholar, Assam University, Silchar


Participation, a method of generating legitimacy in the political system, is one of the key indicators to measure individuals’ involvement in the governance. It is a process through which people can either recognize or nullify the power to be authority. Political participation does not imply only voting rather includes participation in whole political process like decision making, political consciousness etc. ‘Decision making’, popularly comes up with words like, ‘the action or process of making decisions’. The concept in the context of politics or political decision making refers to a process in which political parties, leaders, leadership compare and select principles, means and methods to be implemented in achieving goals and interests. This is affected by the level of citizens’ political participation, be it from inside or outside. In addition, to be an equal partner in the process of governance there arise the demand of equal participation both on the part of men and women. But it is unwondering that in most societies political participation by both sexes are at different levels depending on their social construction. The level of political participation by both sexes in developed states is diverse from that of developing and underdeveloped ones. This paper tries to examine the issue of political participation of women of Northeast India during last five Indian General and Assembly Elections. A comparative study based on secondary data has been made in order to bring into light the gap between both sexes in terms of their political participation and thereby their involvement in decision making process too. 

An Analysis of the Trends in Policy Discourses on Expansion of Higher Education in India

K. Kanagaraj
Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Institute of Distance Education, University of Madras, Chennai-600005

This paperattempts to mapthe trends in policy discourses on expansion of higher education in Indiasince independence.Guided by Critical Policy Discourse Analysis framework of Hyatt (2013), the paper employs document analysis to critically analyze the reports of various commissions and committees, policy documents and Five Year plan documentsto make sense of their concerns, understandings, and recommendations regarding the expansion of higher education in India.The analysis of the policy documents revealed two distinct trends in policy discoursesregarding the expansion of higher education in India. The first trend was related to restricting the access to higher education on the grounds of uneven developmentand deterioration of quality due toover-crowding class rooms in higher education institutions. The reports of commissions/committees and the policy documentsin the pre-2000 period espoused this trend.The second trend was associatedwith the notion of‘massive expansion’in higher education that includes raising the Gross Enrollment Ratio in higher education to match the global average.The policy documents in the post-2000s reflected this trend. The shift in the policy perspectiveson expansion of higher education in India around the late nineties could be understood as a response to the pressures of massification created by the global knowledge economy. With regard to the strategy for expansion, almost all the reports and policy documents published post-2000s mandate for more participation of private players as the period also marks the commencement of new economic reforms in India which emphasize on ‘disinvesting’ in public sector and ‘deregulating’ the private sector.The paper concludes that the shift in the policy preferences regarding the expansion of higher education in India reflect a tendency towards fulfilling the requirements of the global market rather than serving the local needs and interests of common mass. 

An Evaluation of Productivity and Profitability Performance of Karnataka Bank

Dr. Manish Seth
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Commerce, RGSC, BHU.

In any bank board of directors and employees are responsible for better productivity performance. So time to time it is necessary to verify the working of these people because their performances are closely related to the profitability of any bank. This verification work also helps in controlling and measuring risks of the bank. Effective productivity can be responsible for long term survival and sustained growth rate of any bank. Strong productivity helps in framing vision and goals for the organization and also how it can be achieved significantly. Strong productivity efficiency makes better way for better quality banks and shows suitable measures to poorly managed banks for their betterment in future.

Womanhood in Dahan and Antarmahal: A Cinematic Analysis of Family and Society

Dr.Jayanta Vishnu Das
Assistant Professor, Department of Cultural Studies, Tezpur University

Antarmahal and Dahan represent two films at two ends of the spectrum while representing women and their tribulations in different temporal settings.Dahan depicts a contemporary urban Kolkata where the female protagonist faces molestation at the metro station. Antarmahal on the other hand describes the story of two women stuck within the confines of four wall of a zamindari in colonial times. Although women find themselves in different social settings their predicament is defined by the men in their lives. Rituparno Ghosh masterfully explores the inner feelings of his female protagonists in both the films. In Antarmahal, religion is used as a tool of exploitation and suppression and in Dahan, the law is used as a force to dominate and control the women and their right to protest and express their views as the members of a society. It is the women’s bodies which is the site of all struggle, a women has no right over her own self and body. The patriarchal system lays claim over her and she is not allowed to act independent. Ghosh uses the cinematic liberty to establish this truth in light of two distinctly separate settings.Rituparno Ghosh’s understanding of the role of women within the confines of her boundaries as determined by the male society is shown in detail in both these films. Women’s pain and sufferings are not at all different even if there is a huge difference of time between them. In Antarmahal, the Zamindar Bhubaneswar Choudhury is the only person to decide everything and the others have to follow his rules. Likewise, in Dahan the female characters are dominated by the opposite sex in terms of taking decisions or expressing opinion.

Financial Inclusion in Odisha: Issues and Challenges

Dr Diptimayee Mishra
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Berhampur University, Ganjam, Odisha


Financial inclusion (FI) is a paradigm of overall development at the grassroot level. Odisha, being one of the poorest states in India need to be financially inclusive for the growth of its economy as well as to make its people financially stable, especially the rural mass. An attempt has been made in the present study to examine the various facets of financial inclusion in India and Odisha. The study has analysed the inter district variations in FI and the challenges and hindrances for Odisha to be financially inclusive. For the analysis secondary data from various sources have been used. It is found that although financial inclusion has enabled millions of rural masses to enter into the ambit of the formal banking system, still there are gaps and challenges that need to be addressed for making Odisha financially inclusive.

Know the problem behaviour of the children

Dr. Vivek Kaushik
Principal Maa Gayitri Institute , Chandaus Aligarh Uttar Pradesh


 One of the major sources of frustration in teaching is the child who exhibits “problem behavior”. Perhaps he interrupts the class with antics, perhaps he does nothing at all- even his assigned work- perhaps he steals, perhaps he cannot read. Somehow or other, every classroom seems to have one or more children behavior seems calculated annoy the teacher and to frustrate his best efforts. An analytical view regarding problem behaviour among the children is presented here with suggestions.

Study of trend and the effect of interest rate on residential real estate pricing in India

Nitya Nayar & Manu Pandey

Real estate performs an important role and is a fundamental contributor to economic development of the nation. Real estate in India is the second leading employer after the agriculture sector. Real estate in India has been predicted to expand by 30 percent over the next decade. Even though, the real estate sector being one of the leading sectors in India’s economy, it has greatly been affected by interest rates. The main aim of the paper is to study the real estate trends and to establish the effect of interest rate on residential real estate pricing in India. The paper establishes the effect of interest rate on residential real estate pricing in India. This study employed descriptive survey to ascertain and describe the features of the variables of interest in a situation. The study population comprised of all the residential real estates in India. This study employed secondary data, where data on residential real estate pricing was extracted, while data on interest rates and GDP growth were extracted from the official websites. The study employed quarterly data for a period of 10 years from 2008-2018. A multiple regression model was used to analyse the data. 

The Nature of Violence against Women in the Context of Migration: A Critical Analysis of India

Ph.D. Scholar, Centre for Gandhian Thought and Peace Studies Central University of Gujarat, Gujrat, India


In the 21st century, we are living in a liberal world, where the people can move to one place to another place without any restriction based on caste, class, religion, region and sex. Due to globalisation, people are migrating from their origin place to another place, the women are also a part of this process. Through the migration, the women get some beneficial opportunities and empowered themselves, but another side they are victimized to various types of gender-based violence such physical violence, mental and sexually harassment. Through the descriptive research method, the paper will try to explore the issue of violence against women that they are facing through the migration process. 

Goods & Service Tax (GST) in India and Abroad: A Comparative Study

Anjan Kumar Roy Choudhury
Department of Commerce, Assistant Professor, Vidyasagar Evening College, Kolkata, W.B.

The long awaited Goods& Service Tax (GST) came into effect in India on and from 1st July, 2017. Since independence this is the greatest indirect tax reform in India. This is a destination-based consumption tax and is levied all over India. GST replaced almost all the indirect taxes at central and at the state level, except few, which are still beyond the scope of GST, like customs duty, petroleum products, electricity, state excise on Alcoholic liquor for human consumption etc. to bring in the uniformity in the indirect tax structure with the slogan ‘ One Nation, One Market, One Tax’. The main objectives of implementing GST in India was to avoid the cascading effect i.e. tax on tax, to avoid tax evasion by inclusion of more and more traders and service providers within the purview of GST and to accelerate economic growth. Most of the countries, that implemented GST, follow unified-GST but India follows dual-GST (The Canadian model) where both Union and State governments have the power to levy tax. This study attempts to make comparison between the structure of Indian GST and GST/ VAT all over the world.

Financial Performance of Public Sector Banks in India

Karishma R. Shah
Visiting Faculty, Swami Sahjanand College of Commerce and Management M.K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India


Banking sector is one of the greatest growing sectors in India as it is having a huge network of bank branches with wide range of banking products for the customer. In a development of economy, a well performed banking sector is precondition. Financial performance of Bank can be evaluated for several reasons. Industry related stakeholders are connected with PSB like Shareholder, Government, Customers, Employees and Competitor and they need to know about the financial performance of the banks. The objective of the present study is to compare and analyze the financial performance (with help of financial ratio) of selected public sector bank in India working in India. The main conclusion of the study is that profitability scenario in State Bank of India and Punjab National Bank are very pretty during the study period. And State Bank of Mysore and Canara Bank are having weakest performance in particular ratio. High profitability scenario leads to very beautiful picture of public sector banks and which help to survive against competitive environment. 

Role of women entrepreneurship in women empowerment

Prof Lata S. Koparde and Dr Sharada
Assistant Professor in Economics Govt First Grade College Tilavalli Hangal , Haveri

Women are regarded as better half of the society. In traditional Indian societies they   were confined to four walls. In modern society ,they come out of four walls to participate in all types of activities including entrepreneurship. One of the key factor in determining the success of development is the status and position of women  in the society. The neglect of women in the development process of any country constitutes a human resource waste. Women are lagging behind men mainly because of the relative absence of economic opportunities and minimal participation in the decision making process. Educational backwardness is another major reason why women are lagging behind men Women entrepreneurship can be defined as a purposeful activity of a woman or a group as associated women undertaken to initiate ,maintain, organize profit oriented business unit for the production or distribution of economic activities .The specialists in economic development have considered Entrepreneurship Development as a positive approach to empowerment. Entry of women into entrepreneurship is traced out as an extension of their kitchen activities mainly 3Ps,viz.Pickle,Powder, and Papad .Empowerment of women through entrepreneurship leads to Boost in the self –confidence of women, Economic solvency, Capital building, Improvement in the status of women.

Demonetization: Social and Economic Implications

Dr R K Arya & Dr Swati Watts
Manav Rachna International Institute of Research and Studies, Faridabad


Indian government has experimented with demonetization with strong conviction to take out black money. Perhaps there was no eradication on the black money. Perhaps there was no crackdown on the black money, but Government claims that at the end, they could nab some income tax payee and busted few shell companies. Whether cost was more than the benefits or vice versa, it is best known to the government but if one has to go by the Government version then it is good for demonetization. But whether cost can ensure that there will not be no cash accumulation in future, then it is  all the more wishful but if it continues to repeat again and again, which according to our view it will then demonetization is considered as more painful. It is better that Government comes out with such measures which reduce the transactions to an extent, it is essential. So long as there are loopholes in the payment system, cash would continue to be generated.

A study on customer preference of banking services provided by commercial banks in Tirunelveli city

P. Mohammed Buhari Saleem
Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Sadakathullah Appa College (Autonomous), Rahmath Nagar, Tirunelveli-627011


Commercial Bank provides services such as accepting deposits, lending business, auto, home loans and essential investment products for customers like savings accounts, term deposit and many more where bank in exchange compensate interest on investments and deposits. Some of the commercial banks in India are Indian Bank, Punjab National Bank, Canara Bank, SBI, etc. This bank mostly deals with transactions from large business group or corporate as opposed to transactions from individual customers know as retail banking. Now a day, Modern commercial banks are termed as online commercial banks where they do not own any physical offices customer can fulfill all the transactions over the internet or over the phone.

An Overview of Food Security in India: Issues and Challenges

Dr. Rajesh Kumar
Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Banaras Hindu University (BHU), Varanasi-221005, India


Food security is access to enough food by all people at all time for an active and healthy life. India is truly development now and its income, infrastructure, per capita income has also developed. But the major problem faced by India is ‘the problem food management and its distribution’.  First Millennium Development Goal states the target of “Halving hunger by 2015”. Sadly, the recent statistics for India present a very gloomy picture. India currently has the largest number of undernourished people in the world and this is in spite of the fact that it has made substantial progress in health determinants over the past decades and ranks second worldwide in farm output. The causes of existing food insecurity can be better viewed under three concepts namely the: ‘traditional concept’ which includes factors such as unavailability of food and poor purchasing capacity; ‘socio-demographic concept’ which includes illiteracy, unemployment, overcrowding, poor environmental conditions and gender bias; ‘politico-developmental concept’ comprising of factors such as lack of inter-sectoral coordination and political will, poorly monitored nutritional programmes and inadequate public food distribution system. Since the Millennium Development Goal could not be achieved by 2015, efforts to improve the food and nutrition sector have increased very rapidly. Priority has to be assigned to agriculture and rural development along with promoting women empowerment, ensuring sustainable employment and improving environmental conditions (water, sanitation and hygiene). As the problem is multi-factorial, so the solution needs to be multi-sectoral. This paper is focused on the several food security issues prevalent in the Indian scenario. It also covered the several development programmes taken up by the Indian government to counter various food security issues including several schemes and yojanas. India’s biggest challenge still remains to ensure food and nutritional security to its masses.

Constitutional Protection of the Indigenous People and National Register of Citizenship in Assam

Dr. Dadul Dewri
Assistant Professor, Pub Kamrup College, Baihata Chariali, Assam


The problem illegal migration of Bengali Muslims from Bangladesh to Assam and India is a serious political issue. The incessant growth of Muslim population in several districts of Assam showed by the respective census reports has proved the fact of illegal migration of Bengali Muslims to Assam and India. There is a long history of migration of the Bengali Muslims to Assam and India which resulted in serious demographic and socio-cultural changes in the region. Historic Assam Movement was the protest movement against the illegal migration in Assam which aimed at establishment of legal and constitutional protection of the indigenous Assamese people in Assam and India. The National register of Citizen (NRC) was first prepared after the census report of 1951 to register the names of indigenous peoples and to restrict the illegal migration to the region. But the flow of illegal migration has never been stopped in the region. The Supreme Court of India in 2012 in a judgment had issued an order to the Central Government to update the NRC so to protect the interest of the indigenous Assamese peoples against the large scale illegal migration. Here in this paper attempt has been made to highlight the issue of illegal migration of Bangladeshi Muslims to the Assam and India and to discuss the Assam Accord and NRC as a measure to protect the indigenous Assamese people of Assam and India.

Causal relationship between export and economic growth: evidence from India

T.Sampathkumar and S.Rajesh Kumar


This study aims to examine the causal relationship between exports and economic growth in India data were obtained from UNCTAD over the period 1991 to 2017. The present study using Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) to examine the stationarity of the data series and the Granger causality was applied to test the causal relationship between Export and economic growth in India. The results shows that there is evidence of uni-directional causality between export and economic growth in India and the direction of causality runs strictly from economic growth to exports. In conclusion, this study provided support for growth-led export in case of India.

A study on net profit and non-performing assets of Bank of India and Kotak Mahindra Bank

Nayan M. Gadhia
Accountancy/Commerce Associate Professor Shri S. D. R. Bapu Mahila Home Science College & Lt. M. J. Kundaliya English Medium Mahila Commerce College Chaudhary high school campus, Kasturba Road, Opp. Jain Derasar Rajkot 360 001.


Bank advance means the advances of a specific amount of money to a business enterprise or an individual by a commercial bank. Bank loan and advances plays a very crucial roal in banking sector. On one hand it’s generates interest income, which is the main sources of income for banks in the context of net profit. While on the other hand, if loan and advances get converted in to non-performing assets, then it’s burden bound to come on profit & loss and Balance sheet, both are going to be affected badly(negatively). This study is more relevant in the present environment, as the Indian banking sector is having a (facing) big problem of Nonperforming assets. The level of NPA is comparatively more & big in public sectors banks than in private sector banks. Banking sector needs to reduce and control its NPA to improve its productivity and profitability. Wherever necessary, additional preventive measures should be taken to control the NPAs. This study focus on GROSS-NPA, NET-NPA, NET-PROFIT, of a public sector bank (BANK OF INDIA) and a private sector bank (KOTAK MAHINDRA BANK).  In this study, NET PROFIT and NET NPAs of two banks are taken to measure the correlation, and all GROSS NPA, NET NPAs and NET PROFIT are taken for tabular representation.

Education policies for girls and women in india: a perspective

Shailla Draboo
is a Research Scholar currently pursuing her Ph.D from Department of Political Science, Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi. Her area of interest includes public administration and gender studies.

In order to empower women in India, it is important that our education policies tackle the complexities at ground level. Women in India may enjoy an equal status on paper but in reality, they are mostly bound by the gendered social roles given by the society. The result of this gender-socialization is that education is mostly given a back seat in the priority lists for girls and women. This paper analyses how the education policies in India have evolved since Independence and have improved the educational status of girls and women. Examples from historical and present context have been cited to analyse the dynamic shifts in education polices for girls and women. Further, data from the government reports has been analysed to understand the factual position on ground. The aim of this paper is to give an insightinto the national and global efforts to increase the access of education for women and how far they have been successful. Emerging trends in the education policies have also been discussed to give a current perspective. Finally, some recommendations have been made, which may help improve the impact and outcome of the education policies for girls and women.

London Missionary Society and the Progress of Health Care in Colonial Travancore

Sindhu Thomas and Y. Srinivasa Rao
Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu, PIN: 620024


The Christian Missionaries always stood for all especially for the emancipation of the poor, lower castes, women etc.  Even though they had the aim to propagate their religion, the missionaries of various societies like L.M.S.( London Missionary Society), C.M.S.( Church Missionary Society), Salvation Army, Lutherans etc. did tremendous work in the field of education and Health care. There is no doubt that the missionaries were the pioneers to start better education, better health care to all the people without any kind of discrimination.  The medical missions entered the Indian subcontinent during the late 18th century. The earliest among them was the London Missionary Society which started work in 18th century in the Travancore State. To help the ignorant men and women out of the vortex of sickness and ailment the London Missionary Society started its medical service. In the field of medical care, LMS did a considerable amount of work in Kerala after 1838. The hospitals of Christian Missionaries brought all castes together, thus providing a new concept about man in a traditional society like that of Kerala. The Protestant women Missionaries contributed a lot for the medical and health care of the people in the Mission stations. They provided medical help to all patients whether rich or poor, high or low caste.

Women Questions and the Self-Respect Movement in the Madras Presidency: Retrospection of the Devadasi Abolition and Child Marriage Bills in 1929

K. Muruganandan and
Assistant Professor of English Thiruvalluvar University Constituent Arts and Science College Kallakurichi Villupuram District, Tamil Nadu, India

Colonial education and continued process of modernization rationalized the Indian elites to fight back against the good old slavish cultural and societal practices against women. When the Indians were given place to govern themselves in the civic and other domains of society and culture by the British rulers, crucial problems faced by the women were given considerable importance with the nominal support of the imperial government — the final authority to approve and implement any bill/act. Arguably, Madras stood prominent among the British-Indian presidencies in enacting several quite significant laws to protect women from being exploited by the sanctified customs of the native traditional and cultural practices. In this respect, the year 1929 was the most important, for Devadasi abolition Bill (which later became Devadasis (Prevention of Dedication) Act), and Sarada Bill for abolishing child marriages were passed in the assembly of Madras Presidency. The importance of these bills hardly need any explanation in the Indian context. 
This year (1929) saw a huge raise in the Self Respect Movement led by Periyar E.V. Ramasami, which carried forward the arguments and rationales in support of these bills in the social and intellectual premises. The Justice Party, that was in rule then, also shared many rational and Non-Brahminical ideas of the Self Respect Movement. The Assembly members with concern for social reformation and women’s upliftment in the Madras Presidency took efforts to pass these bills, among whom Dr. Muthulakshmi Reddy and Mr. Saradawere pioneers. There were of course many oppositions against the reform bills from the then Congress leaders and assembly members. Self Respecters countered those opposing arguments through suitable counter-discursive and argumentative strategies. These arguments and counter-arguments appear more interesting and crucial than the bills themselves in the present scenario, as these debates and exchange of ideas contribute much to the retrospective understanding of the reforms in women’s questions, and contribution of Periyar and Self-Respect Movement in fighting against the cultural roots of women’s oppressions in India. This paper, retrospectively and using present theoretical understanding, attempts to read the debates and arguments put forth by the Self Respecters related to Devadasi Abolition and Sarda bills.  The related editorials, articles and news items appeared in this year (1929) in Tamil and English Weeklies Kudiyarasuand Revolt Published by Periyar will be examined in this paper for this retrospective analysis. 

Women Property Right and Stridhanam in Ancient Hindu Society: Journey from Stridhanam to Dowry

Samreen Hussain
Assistant Professor (Law) Dr, Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University LDA Colony, Kanpur Road Lucknow-m 226012


Advancing equity for women through property rights and economic entitlements is pivotal in the journey towards women empowerment and is instrumental bringing forth the dawn of social change in India. The constitution of India not only grants equal rights but also equality of opportunities for women in all spheres of life for overall development and growth.  Women who constitutes, half of the population is denied basic human freedoms and rights in the name of culture, religion,  and social norm and customs. Majority of women in India are deprived of basic education, health facilities, employment opportunities and economic participation and adversely effecting their social development. The root cause for this is the traditional mind set and patriarchal norms prevailing in our culture which defines women as only nurturers and care-takers. In this paper a critical examination of the development of succession rights of Hindu women in ancient Hindu philosophy is taken to understand the deep-rooted problems in the property regime for the present day women. 

To study how India can adopt Chinese electric vehicle policy to become a self sustained nation

Dheeraj Sudhakaran and Shivani Mehta

“Sustainability is the need for the hour with non renewable resources reaching dangerous levels of exhaustion, the need for changing to greener energy should be the primary objective globally, as the biggest threat to sustainable growth is from air pollution in the developing and developed nations of the world. With the increasing population in the developing nations like China and India the numbers of automobile users are also increasing rapidly. The high oil prices have made no effect on the sales of the fuel driven vehicles rather it contributed to the increasing pollution levels. Chinese economy has however taken steps to prevent further increase in pollution levels and to use the increasing demand for automobile in the economy in their favour for a greener future, with large portion of their budget being used to push the electric vehicle market and to bring electric vehicle to the roads. Therefore china can be the leading nation for the developing nations to learn from. This study therefore shows how Indian economy can adopt from the Chinese electric vehicle market for a greener future and attain their sustainable development goals. 

Wage Differential and Rural-Urban Migration: A Study in Delhi NCR

Jyoti Choudhary and Mahua Bhattacharjee
Student of Masters of Economics1, Associate Professor, Amity University, Noida Dept. Of Economics1, Amity University, Noida, India1

The research paper high spot the applicability of Harris Todaro Model in India, where the emphasis was put on the structure of employment of migrants, the wage gape between rural and urban sector and the degree of dispersion between actual and desired income, physical and human capital. The analysis found out that most of migrants fall in informal sector of employment due to lack of education and skills. Only 2% of students enrolled in universities for higher education which is the minimum eligibility for applying in formal sector of employment. Further it was found out that wage gap between rural and urban sector exist in India, where in urban sector minimum wage rate is 16,700 rupees per month in urban sector and 10,600 rupees per month in rural sector, which induces people to migrate from one place to another. At last in research paper it was analysed that there is degree of dispersion between what migrants desired and are actually getting.

Mobile Banking and financial inclusion: A comparative study between India and China

Shivani Khandelwal and Shivani Mehta
Amity school of Economics

Mobile Banking is a type of financial service people can get on their mobile phones. It follows an anywhere- anytime policy which is really helpful for the people. It is time saving and effortless. This type of technology can and have uplifted the economy. People consider this because it is useful. Though there are certain challenges and issues relating to mobile banking which are being solved by government. This paper compares India and China’s progress so far in mobile banking and financial inclusion. It tells us what policies we should implement to increase the use of mobile banking, to implement such policies so that the unbanked gets benefited. It gives a brief about what China and India has done till now in this area and what they are planning. This paper includes all the things that india can do to help increase the use of mobile banking for the ease of people and for the benefit of the economy. The paper offers imperative commitments to the current writing on electronic banking. China implemented some policies to increase the use of internet like banning the ICO and China's national bank targeted portable installments oligopolies with a clearing command.

Is Kerala Model an Alternative for Development? A comparative Analysis of the Development Achievements of Kerala

K Nagarajan
Asst. Prof. of Economics, Govt. College Munnar, Idukki, Kerala

Kerala, one of the tiny states in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent is known for its unique development experience which is often described as ‘Kerala Model’.  The model is unique as it has a very high social development indicators which is at par with developed countries of the world whereas it has a comparative low level of economic development.    The success of the model is often subscribed to the success of the public policies, especially in educational and health care sectors.  International agencies often point it out as a model which the global south can follow.
Inspite of these achievements in quantitative terms, various reports and analysis on the quality of services delivered does not place Kerala at the top. Questions are raised on the qualitative achievements of the state in delivering  educational and health care goals. This paper aims to make  comparison at the international and national level in terms of delivering and attaining the real goals in qualitative terms. 

Groundwater institutions and governance in North Indian states Evidence and lessons from Hoshiarpur and Jammu districts

Ishita Singh and Megha Dhawan
Chandigarh, India


Green revolution and development of drilling technology allowed intensive groundwater abstraction in North Indian states since mid-1960s without simultaneous evolution of institutions. Overuse of groundwater and lack of adequate planning, legal frameworks and governance pose a threat to sustainability of intensive use of groundwater resources in Punjab. More or less similar is situation in Jammu region of state of Jammu and Kashmir, where groundwater is being used intensively for irrigation. Keeping above scenarios in view, a deeper analysis of institutions for groundwater governance is essential in both north Indian states of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir, which have ultimately leads to policy prescriptions for robust institutions for groundwater governance and help overcome serious problems associated with its abuse and misuse. The primary data and information has been collected from 180 water users each in agriculture from Jammu district of Jammu and Kashmir state and Hoshiarpur district of Punjab state. The study reveals that energy subsidies to agriculture have resulted in over pumping of groundwater, declining water table levels, failure of tube-wells, and increasing diesel run pumping costs, with serious environmental consequences. Minimum support price for paddy, wheat and sugar have greater influence on groundwater use. Uncertainty of monsoon and existence of groundwater markets add further stress to groundwater resources. Therefore, there is need for a gradual phasing out of cross-energy subsidies. Conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water is capable of achieving much greater water-supply security, larger net water-supply yield, better timing of irrigation-water delivery, and reduced climate impact.

Local Roots of Dalit Politics in Colonial and Post-Colonial Uttar Pradesh: A Study from Historical Perspective

Arvind Swaroop
Research Scholar, Department of History, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Lucknow, U.P


This paper explores historical dimension of the local roots of Dalit politics and their nature in Uttar Pradesh. This paper tries to examine the historical background and the factors that had shaped the political action of Dalits in Uttar Pradesh. This paper also tries to understand the factors responsible stimulating Dalit political consciousness. Existing studies on Dalit politics and history in India have mainly been centered on the Dalit movement and various aspects related to it. But we propose that Dalit politics is a product of the ideas and activism that were undertaken by various caste associations in the context of Uttar Pradesh.

Distance Education: Challenges of teaching English language in 21st century

Jagdeep Kumar
(Research Scholar/ Assistant Professor) Department of Education Panjab University, Chandigarh


Distance education or long-distance learning is the education of students who may not always be physically present at a school(Miller & Honeyman, 1993; Kaplan & Haenlein, 2016).  Traditionally, this usually involved correspondence courses wherein the student corresponded with the school via post. Today it involves online education. Courses that are conducted 51 percent or more (Distance Education Accrediting Commission, 2013) are either hybrid (Tabor, 2007) blended (Cleveland-Innes & Garrison, 2010) or 100% distance learning. In present era, students are facing lots of problems when it comes to learning English. English is considered target language for the Indians. Students are reporting a lack of training for communication skills using the English language, insufficient hours of lectures and face-to-face interactions, a time consuming Intensive course and issues with downloading from the e-portal as the main factors making it difficult for the distance learners to learn English.

Usage of Blogs as an alternative expression of Dalit voice in India

C. Suresh Kumar
Assistant Professor Department of Visual Communication Pondicherry University Puducherry

Dalits are deemed as the untouchables and categorized as the lowest in the Indian society. The history witnesses that Dalits have been marginalized and neglected by the traditional mainstream media. Despite the fact that many social reformers fought for the liberation of Dalits from the clutches of caste system, the significance of mass media in this connection remained considerably important. It is very saddening that very little did the Indian media did for extending support to the Dalit in emancipating Dalits from the social stigma of caste system. Several reasons could be cited for this deplorable condition of the mass media in India. Lack of Dalits employed in the Indian media is one such reasons as to why the there was inadequate media representation of Dalit issues in the Indian media. The media industry were mostly owned by the upper caste and elite. Obviously, it is because of this phenomenon, the news pertaining to the Dalit community were deliberately exempted or fail to appear in the mainstream media. Not only the issues on Dalits were pushed aside, but also the Dalits who wanted to make to the mainstream media were rejected. According to the NHRC report, the media provides negligible space to their plight/problems. Many researches too, pointed out the fact that Dalits were either neglected or the Dalit issues were misrepresented it. Hence, there was a need for the Dalit community to voice their views. Though, efforts were taken to establish their own media by Dalits, this effort could not sustain. In a situation like this, the emergence of internet evolved as the greatest boon to the Dalit intellectuals to speak to the rest of the population. Dalits no longer waited for the mainstream media to speak for them. Instead, Dalits started to use the new technology to discuss and speak the Dalit issues. This study utilizes Bailey’s et al., frameworks of alternative media to analysis and discuss as to how Dalits use blogs as an alternative medium to voice their opinions. The findings of the study throws light that Dalit make of blogs as new form of virtual public sphere tool to communicate to all the people. The study also points out that the educated Dalits utilize the blog platform to communicate to the world without fear and to record the issues rejected by the mainstream media.

Evaluation of Corporate Governance mechanism in Indian banking sector -A Study of selected Indian Commercial Banks

Niti Saxena
Associate Professor (Management) Jagannath international Management School, MOR, Pocket 105, Kalkaji, New Delhi-110019


Corporate Governance has become a ‘buzz word’ nowadays. As in today’s world the business is carried out by modern corporations where the ownership separates itself from management, it becomes the duty of board of directors not only to look after the interests of shareholders but also to take care of interest of other stakeholders. In the context of corporate governance the Indian banking sector has a special role to play as this sector has had a large public ownership which has now been divested to a great extent. The main reason for the application of corporate governance phenomenon in a manner which is different from that of other corporates is that in this sector the interests of other stakeholders i.e. depositors is more important than the shareholders or the Board of Directors. Also the banking sector is exposed to a number of risks such as credit risk, market risk and the country risk. The present paper is an attempt to appraise the development of corporate governance in Indian banking structure through the study of 10 banks including 5 public sector and 5 private sector banks. 

Contribution of Social and Academic Background on Students Academic Achievement studying in Higher Education in North East India : An analysis of perception and reality

Dr Ajay Kumar Singh and Dr Monalisa Das
MRP, ICSSR New Delhi , Department of Education, Assam University Silchar, Assam, India


Apart from genetic effect, Differences in socio-economic  and other factors create individual differences which leads to variation in academic achievements of the students. The present study is an endeavour to explore the association of different social, economic and academic background of students with academic achievement in higher education for different social groups. Results obtained from reaction of 200 students of higher education enrolled in general and teachers’ training institutions reveals significant variation in academic achievement for different social groups and gender. Social stratification on the basis of caste is also associates imperative variation in academic achievement and the determinants furthermore depict diverse inclination for different social category. Learners of non-first generation in higher education are performing better to first generation learners; however the influence of socio-economic factors on academic achievement in these two groups is homogeneous. Students with desire to pursue further higher education are found more focused on their learning and hence performing well again. Family size is negatively associated with academic achievement in higher education. Thus higher density family is unsustainable for achievement in higher education and factor found relevant for students of urban or semi urban origin. Family environment plays an important role in determining social status and as well as educational attainment and hence found significant in students’ perception. Further influence of peer group is found positively supporting academic achievement in higher education. Students with influential personalities in their neighbourhood are performing better and considered as an important social predicator of academic achievement in students’ perception.

Civil services: a symbol of change and continuity

Dr. Meenakshi Yadav
Assistant Professor, Public Administration, Govt. Arts Girls College, Kota, Rajasthan


All nations, irrespective of their system of government, require some sort of administrative machinery for implementing the policies. There is immense importance of the civil service system in the administrative system which acts as most vital tool for governance of India. Today, the focus of public administration has changed from the preservation of law and order to the achievement of targets, to accomplish the goals rapidly with least waste and least failures. Earlier it was basically oppressive and control oriented and now it has become more regulatory and development oriented. Dignity, opportunity and justice have become the new watchwords and the role of bureaucracy is vastly expanded. The ‘negativism’ of regulatory administration is being reshaped into ‘positivism’ of competitive collaborations at national and international levels. Naturally a new democratic administration for 21st century in India is being envisaged to optimise the results of the politics of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation. Indian administration since independence could be best described as a confluence of the streams of continuity and change.

A Necessary Requisite in Criminal Justice System to recognise the right of Speedy Trial for Under-trial Prisoners: An effective and operative Fundamental Right

Dr. Abhijit Bhattacharjee
Assistant Professor, Jalpaiguri Law College, Jalpaiguri, west Bengal, India


The Right to Speedy Trial is not expressly Guaranteed Constitutional Right in India. Speedy Trial is the essence of Criminal Justice system and delay in trial by itself constitutes denial of justice. The Right to Speedy Trial has been held implicit in the broad sweep and ambit of Article 21 of the Constitution of India by the Apex Court of India in the Case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India on the ground that Justice delayed is Justice Denied. It is no doubt that there is still a judicial dilemma due to divergent opinions expressed by the Judiciary regarding the prescription of maximum time limit within which a trial should be completed and after the expiry of that period the accused should be acquitted in case the trial is not concluded. A sincere effort has been made by the Judiciary  in making the right of an accused to speedy trial an effective and operative fundamental right under Criminal Justice System in India.