Attitude of Female Teachers Towards Effectiveness Of CCE

Dr. Beena Singh and Namita Gauraha
Pt.SunderlalSharma (Open) University,Bilaspur(C.G)


Education is a process of human development. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation refers to a system of school based assessment that covers all aspects of student‘s development. Now according to Right to Education act Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation become mandatory at primary level of education. In the present study 50 women teachers have been selected randomly. Teacher attitude scale developed by Dr. VishalShood and AartiAnand has been been used to measure teachers attitude towards effectiveness of CCE . t-value has been used for data analysis and found significant difference between the attitude of female teachers of govt. school and female teachers of non govt. school towards the effectiveness of CCE

Recent Trends in Consumer Market and Retail

Dr. Preeti Patil
Assistant Professor VTU PG Centre, Kalaburagi, India


Today’s consumers, especially in the urban areas, have far evolved and expect their shopping experience to be seamless across every channel, whether it’s a brick-and mortar store, an e-commerce website, a mobile app, or even a phone call with the customer service. Internet of Thing (IoT) technology is already seen to be reshaping and revolutionising the retail industry, yielding advances and new opportunities in customer service, throughout the supply chain, and in brick-and-mortar stores and other channels — including new venues that show a lot of promise, such as home-based connected platforms. As the retail landscape evolves, and as customers place the greatest value on their time and attention, brands have responded by offering greater conveniences, customized experiences, and deeper levels of personalization. Today’s customers expect more from brands than ever before, and it’s these demands that continue to push the industry forward with great speed. This paper gives an overview of the current market trends that are shaping the Indian retail industry and highlights the specific areas on which retailers are working on with a view to improving customer experience such as premiumisation, social commerce, automated product delivery and touch less commerce. 

Social implications of Surrogacy in India

Amit Verma
Assistant Professor, College of Law & Legal Studies, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, UP 244001


Surrogacy means as act of bearing a biological child of another woman having a financial or sentimental object. Commercial surrogacy means an act of surrogacy for financial gains. Although such acts are to fulfill the desire of issueless parents, may cause adverities to the life of gestational mother. Some decisions given by U.S. Courts in these matters suggest that the trends of commercial surrogacy may lead to legal battles and uncertainly of child’s future. The lawmakers of India should keenly and deeply observe the glabal scenario before passing any regulation in this delicate matter.

Discriminate function analysis for high and low achievers of Mathematics on various socio-psycho-biographic variables

Dr. Shyam Sundar Kushwaha
Head and Assistant Professor, Department of Education Government Girls Degree College, Jhansi (U.P.) India


The present investigation aimed to compare high and low achievers of Mathematics on various socio-psycho-biographic variables. For the purpose a sample of 465 (289 male and 176 female) students of the age group between 14 to 18+ years, studying in the Xth  & XIth class of secondary schools situated in urban and rural areas of Agra Region was selected. Standardized as well as self-made tools were used to measure various independent variables. Discriminant Function analysis was carried to identify the various predictors of Mathematics achievement of the students. Results revealed that the subsequent predictors, which discriminate the two groups ie. high achievers and low achievers in Mathematics are Tutor helpfulness in  Study, Attitude towards Mathematics, Self Esteem, Delay of Gratification, Income, Social Maturity, Home Environment, Institutional Climate, Task Persistence, Sex, Educational Background of Parents, and Locus of Control.

Nativity and its Inclusion of Conjectural Beliefs and Customs on Natural Deities in Nellore District of South Indian Region

Kakani Madhava and Murala Rupa
Centre for the Study of Social Exclusion & Inclusive Policy University of Hyderabad


After 72 years of Indian independence several progressive programs and projects have implemented for the development of dalit communities. But there is no proper implementations in entire Nellore district. Peopleare living with vague knowledge and their whole life style is on their aggressive and emotive based believes. Though this paper has illustrated the whole condition of their belief system by practicing several festivals. It portrayed the impact of conjectural beliefs on dalit livelihood due to the practice of festivals and worships.

Internet Overuse as Cause of Mental Ill Health among Female College Students

Sudha Rathore and Sneha Nathawat
Assistant Professor, IIS (Deemed to be) University

Objective: Since long a matter of public concern have been problematic internet use . The purpose of this study was to evaluate how internet addiction have been prevalent and how it is related with depression, anxiety and stress among female college students. Design: A causal research design.Method: Sample of the study includes 254 college students aged between 18-14 years. To analyze data, in descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation were used. Pearson correlation and single-variable regression were also administered. These analyses were carried out via SPSS 20.0.Results: findings revealed that Internet addiction has a positive significant relationship with Depression, Anxiety and Stress and all its components. The Regression results revealed that 25.5% of depression, 23.4% of anxiety and 25.8% of stress variable in general, will be predicted by addiction to internet.Conclusion: The study of the underlying causes of Internet addiction and consequently, prevention of it seems necessary based on the findings of this study

Conversion of education system to tribal community by digital education

Nivriti Dubey
Research Scholar, Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur


A large amount of money has been distributed by the governments to improve education system in India, but the provision of education for all is still a distant dream. The main purpose of this study is to find an alternative teaching model which can opt for the e-revolution that has spread every aspect of our life. Implementation of Digital Education in rural area is best available option for utilization of e-Revolution. Although there have been attempts to incorporate DE in classroom but the significant result hasn’t been achieved. Our aim is not only to make e-learning effective but also to replace underqualified teacher in rural area and allow free infusion of education to bridge the digital dived amongst students of various socio economic background.

A Study on Flood Frequency Analysis in the Foot-Hills of Arunachal Himalayas

Eahya Al Huda
Department of Earth Science University of Science and Technology Meghalaya, India


Present paper examines flood frequency analysis method using Log Pearson Type III Distribution and Gumbel’s Extreme Value Distribution method in in Dikrong river catchment which is located in the foot-hills of Arunachal Himalaya. The river catchment is characterized by the monsoon dominated hydrologic regime. For the purpose daily discharge statistics for 20 years were collected from Water resource Department, Govt. of Assam. The results of analysis indicate that the Gumbel Extreme Value Distribution is the most suitable method and gives more accurate results in the analysis of flood frequency for the Dikrong river catchment.

Social Entrepreneurship as a Tool to Identify the Social Needs

Dr. Nirdosh Kumar Srivastava
Faculty of Agribusiness Management and Food Technology North- Eastern Hill University, Meghalaya

This paper presents findings from an investigation and identification of social needs by the social enterprises in operational areas. The presented study examined the efforts of ten social enterprises and sought to understand the factors that enable successful ones to scale their social impact through identical social needs of community. All the social enterprise were operating in capital constrained environments and scaling required overcoming funding constraints. The findings indicate that social needs identify by social enterprises are more concerned with ranging their impact than with growing their enterprises. Hence, many social enterprises were practise both direct scaling where they grew their own enterprises and indirect scaling where they practise impact through influencing other organizations through identify social needs in both practise. Social entrepreneurship is not a linear process, relatively it is one of tool, discovery, evolution, escalation, learning and reinforcement.Thus viewing the above characteristics the case study method was found to be appropriate in carrying out in depth study of selected social enterprises. The geographical area for this study had been set to Assam and Meghalaya, a North- Eastern part of India. This study indicates many differences between social enterprises, hence it shows comparative discussion under the umbrella of three aspects of social needs such as social Desire, market desire and business process. Key differences include implications of the social needs and resource acquisition for social enterprises. Successful social entrepreneurs were able to build and access social and business networks in order to gain human, financial and other resources. Social enterprises developed viable self-reinforcing resourcing and capability building approaches built on principles of value exchange with their stakeholder like partners, funders, and beneficiaries. Finally, this paper offer some direction for future research by illuminating important issues that emerged from the presented study as social entrepreneurial tools.

Health Seeking Behaviour Patterns among Desia Kandha Populations in Odisha

Paramananda Naik and Sabita Acharya
Professor, P.G Department of Anthropology (CAS), Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Health is one of the principal assets of life, which promoting human health behaviour to achieve well-being. Tribal health behaviour research is an important area in the anthropological inquiry. Health behaviour is a form of health activity to sustain well-being and prevent from health risk. Health seeking behaviour is an important factor in health management. Tribal health and well-being are largely depending on the behaviour pattern acquired by the individual in the society. Health behaviour promotion is an important dimension in the 21st century for achieving public health equity among indigenous communities in the world. An Anthropological field study was conducted among Desia Kandha community in Rayagada District, Odisha, India to gather information and identify key factors which influences health perceptions and behaviours.

Teachers motivational climate in perspective of stream

Dr. Kavita Verma and Mrs. Kiran
Department of Education, Kalyan P.G. College, Bhilai Nagar


Students are the future of any nation but at initial level they are raw material which are carved as a beautiful masterpiece by a teacher,  hence a teacher play an important role to make a well cultured society and a strong nation but we all are influenced by our climate either positively or negatively. It’s Teachers climate which motivate them to do their work with full integrity and dedication at the same due to this climate lots of teacher lost their interest in their work. This research article explores the differences of motivational climate and it’s dimensions between arts and science stream teachers of government schools.  A total number of 300 secondary school teachers (150 science teachers & 150 arts teachers) comprised the sample for this study. A sample would be selected by adopting disproportionate stratified   random sampling method from population.  Self constructed tool by researcher was used for collecting data. The result revealed that students and teachers relationship and uses of IT shows significant difference between science and art teachers.

Morphometric Analysis Using Geo-spatial Technology: A Case Study of Bidoli Gad Basin, Uttrakhand

Kanhaiya Lal Gupta , Neetesh Kumar and Dr. K. S. Bisht


Morphometry  is  the  measurement  and  mathematical analysis of the configuration of the earth's surface, shape and  dimension  of  its  landforms  (Agarwal,  1998;  Obi Reddy et al., 2002). Morphometric analysis of the drainage system is an important aspect of characterization of a watershed as all the hydrologic and geomorphic process occur within the watershed.  The morphometric analysis of the drainage basin and  channel  network  play  a  vital  role  for  understanding the  geo-hydrological behavior of  drainage  basin  and expresses  the  prevailing  climate,  geology, geomorphology,  structural,  etc. antecedents of  the catchment. Detailed  morphometric  analysis  of  Bidoli Gad (tributary of Pashchimi Nayar River,Gargwal Himalaya) helps to  understanding  the  influence  of  drainage morphometric  network  on  landforms  and  their characteristics. The Bidoli Gad Riverhave 4? ? orders of streams. Keeping in view all such hydrological issues, the all orders streams have been taken into account under the present study.  Secondary data such as Landsat Data, toposheets (SOI) has been used to delineate the boundary of river basin and Arc Map 10.1, and other statistics software has been used for mapping and creating DEM of the study area.  The analysis has revealed that the total number as well as the total length of segment is maximum in first order streams and decreases as stream order increase. Present work will help to understand the morphometric characteristics for researcher and planner. 

An Assessment of Settlement Characteristics in Himalayan Upper Pindar River Basin, Uttarakhand

Senjuti Nandy
Former Ph.D. Research Scholar, Department of Geography, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731235

Settlement is the form of human habitation where a community of people live. The nature of settlement differs widely, depending on various physical, socio-cultural elements in different parts of the world. This paper is attempted to present settlement characteristics of the Himalayan Upper Pindar River Basin (30°00?05? N. - 30°19? N. and 79°35?06? E. - 80°05?55? E.), Uttarakhand. This study is based on available secondary data of settlement and data of terrain characteristics to some extent. Among different elements of settlements,five elements i.e. location and distribution, size, density, spacing, types and patterns have been taken into consideration for the analysis of settlement characteristics in Upper Pindar Basin.The result reveals the fact that in all cases the concentration of settlement is decreasing gradually from south-western part to north-eastern part of the basin. Thus, it is concluded that there exists a great spatial variation in every mentioned settlement element in the basin and this differentiation is dominated by physical environment of the basin.

Customary Marriage Practices versus Modern Laws: A Study based on Paniya marriages and POCSO Act, 2012

Rajasree M R and Dr. P H Kalesh
Research Scholar & Assistant Professor, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Sriperumbudur

Being an organ of the society, it is the primary duty of the State to serve the purpose for which it came into existence. It must create those conditions and provide an atmosphere in which every man gets an opportunity for the development of his faculties so that he may grow and expand to the best of his capacity and ability. It should be for serving the justice and happiness for all. To protect the weak against the strong is the modern interpretation of the maintenance of order. Law is a system of rules which are imposed through social institutions to directbehavior and it should provide equality for all. In India there are various tribal communities having their own customs and norms. The subject of ethnic communities like tribes and tribal life is evergreen and fascinating as the customs, manners, social norms and the cultural life of people.Sometimes there are some contradictions and conflicts between these two systems which criminalize the indigenous community in front of the State. Therefore it is crucial for allowing the tribal customary practices to be practiced among the indigenous people and local communities within the framework of modern law. The study is explorative in design and it describes the customs and conflicts through case studies. This paper also explores the reasons behind these conflicts and how it will affect the tribal communities as well. This paper also brings out deliberations for further studies and policy decisions.

National Digital Library of India: A Platform for Changing the Educational Paradigms of India

Niladri Shit
Librarian Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan Dharamgarh, Odisha

 Evolving digital technologies are continuously changing all aspects of human civilization including the way we acquire knowledge and skill. Knowledge assets used to be available in physical form, mostly on paper. But we these are being made available more and more in electronic form. Software technology is facilitating easy and precise discovery and personalized organization of required knowledge assets through a few clicks. Internet has made it possible to access e-contents from anywhere and at any time. All these are leading to a paradigm shift in approach of mankind in accessing knowledge assets and mode of learning. Thus the gradual evolution of libraries and achieves – the storehouse of knowledge assets and the seat of learning are undergoing a silent conceptual revolution. This has resulted in many digital library initiatives in the world including India.  

The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 and plight of women: a case study of Manipur

Dr. Yumnam Premananda Singh
Assistant Professor, Govt. Mizoram Law College, Aizawl


The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (AFSPA) gives blanket power to armed forces to kill its own citizen in mere suspicion and once the area is declared to be disturbed there is a reign of terror prevails.  Rape in armed conflict situations in NE particularly in Manipur is not merely a matter of chance, of women victims being in the wrong place at the wrong time. It is fact that the ongoing armed conflict situation in Manipur inherently creates a hostile environment for women, for which both parties to the conflict are responsible for this ugly face of conflict.  It is apparent that civilians including women and child have been the main victims of ongoing armed conflict in the state of Manipur. Women in Manipur are living under the shadow of a gun that can be wielded with impunity and no legal protection and no human rights for them, an antithesis to the constitutional democracy like ours.  The most workable measure in this juncture is to win the heart of people of NE India in particular Manipur and in this regard it high time to repeal AFSPA in the line of what Justice Reddy Commission recommendation.

Empowerment of Rural Women through Self Help Groups: A Case Study at Gram Panchayat level in West Bengal

Anurupa Saha
Geography Former PG Student of West Bengal State University, NET-JRF


Women constitute fifty percent of the world population and receive hardly ten percent of the world’s income and are the owner of less than one percent of world’s property. The main problem is that they bear a number of responsibilities, but they are not given sufficient participatory or basic leadership control in the family or elsewhere. India being a developing country and it is the Self Help Groups (SHGs) that have made most effective interventions for empowerment and alleviation of poverty to the poor women. Self Help Group is a self employment generation scheme for especially rural women to improve their living conditions. In India, this scheme is implemented with the assistance of NABARD as a fundamental nodal organization in .rural development. The idea of SHG introduced by the Ministry of Rural Development has taken its underlying foundations roots in nook and corner of the rural areas and in the semi-urban and urban areas, which help improve the living standards of women for everyday comforts. The strengthening of women is significant for the improvement of the nation. Women empowerment is a procedure where women challenge the existing norms and culture, to effectively advance their prosperity. The Indian Constitution grants equality to women in all aspects. In this regard, the year 2001 was praised as the time of Women Empowerment. This present study has been intended to follow out the effect of Self Help Group in women strengthening of Banspole Gram Panchayat under Habra II Block in North 24 Paraganas district of West Bengal, India. The objective of the present study is to know the socio economic improvement by the individuals subsequent to joining the SHGs .The data has been taken mainly from primary sources. Information was gathered through structured interview schedule from 80 respondents. The study focuses around the role of SHGs in women strengthening, and financial advancement. The findings of the study trace out that the SHGs have had more prominent effect on both financial perspectives and advancing women strengthening in a sustainable manner.

Constraints of Sustainable Livelihood among Schedule Tribe in RARH Region of West Bengal in India

Sandip Satpati
M.Phil Research Scholar Centre for the Study of Regional Development, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India Postal Address: Kaveri Hostel, Room No 213, JNU, New Delhi- 110067.


The present study aims to investigate the major constraints of sustainable livelihood facing by tribal people and seek to solution to overcome the constraints. The study was carried out in Rarh region of West Bengal in India. Hundred and twenty one CD blocks have been selected. After that, four regions have been created on the basis of secondary data. Then 150 household were surveyed with the help of structured questionnaire schedule from four regions. The results show that Livelihood capital is expanding from west to east within the study area. 64.55% area of the total region is under low to very low livelihoods Capital. The largest percentage of ST population to total population is living in low to very low livelihood resource region. The major constraints for sustainable livelihood are social capital then natural and physical capital. In High Livelihood Resource Region human capital (1.09) is the major constraints of sustainable livelihood. Financial capital 1.16 is the major constraints in Medium Livelihood resource Region. Human Capital (1.60) is that major constraint in Low livelihood resource region and financial capital 1.20 is the major constraints in very Low livelihood resource region. The average landholding of the tribal household in Rarh region is only 1.453 acres which leads to more than seventy percent tribal household has severely affected by lower standard of living condition. Healthcare, transport communication and employment facility is very poor satisfactions among tribal in Low Livelihood Resource Region and Very Low Livelihood Resource Region. And major suggestions are create awareness and give them power for participatory development and create new job opportunity for mass tribal youth.

Attitude of Teachers towards Information Technology

Dr Rihunlang Rymbai
Assistant Professor, Department ofEducation Department of Education, North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong, Meghalaya, India


Teaching and learning are processes which had been going on forever. However, the process of teaching and learning has changed considerably with the permeating of information technology into its realm. There is a call for a greater preparation and training. The information technology which is active in the education system is the information communication technology. Again on referring of the term information technology, teachers have their own opinions and attitude towards it. Hence the present study aims to find out the attitude of teachers towards information technology.

Terrorism in Central Asia

Rachit Srivastava
Ph.D Student Center for Russian and Central Asian Studies Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

This work examines the security threat faced by the Central Asian states because of terrorism. The study tries to understand the magnitude of terrorism, governments’ responses to terrorism and how it affects their foreign policy. It also stresses on the impact of ideas about the nature of terrorist threat and examines the appropriateness of the use of force on counter-terrorism policies of these states, specifically in the external affairs.

Personality of individual investors

Miss. Sashikala V. and Dr.P.Chitramani
Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women Coimbatore – 641043

Investor’s decision making process has now become an important aspect in today’s investment arena. Behavioural finance is an aspect that takes into account every aspect of investor’s decision making process which includes all factors including cultural, psychological and emotional factors. Studies on Investment behaviour have shown that personality is a major aspect that influences the investment decision making process. This study aims at assessing the personality traits of equity investors. The role of demographics on the personality of investors is also identified. The Big Five Personality Test was used to gather data. A sample of 200 experienced equity investors from Coimbatore were considered as the sample for the study. The research highlights that demographic factors have no effect on personality traits of experienced equity investors.

Consumer protection and role of district consumer forums-an empirical study with reference to Chittoor district

G.S. Veena Kumari and Dr.P.V. Narasaiah
Department of Commerce, S.V. University, Tirupati, A.P., India

Majority of the consumers in our country are illiterates and not conscious either about their rights or legal mechanism provided by the government.  Because of illiteracy, innocence and negligence consumers often become the victims of adulterated, spurious, hazardous and sub-standard goods as well as wrong measurements and high prices. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986 was a old comprehensive legislation to protect consumers from malpractices and unscrupulous attempts of businessmen/traders. Against the above backdrop, the researcher has attempted to conduct field survey in order to analyze the views/opinions and perceptions on legal awareness, legal mechanisms, sources of the consumer protection awareness and functioning of consumer forums.    The rationale of conducting field study is to examine and analyze the consumer views and perceptions about their rights and protection.  The filed study is a practical approach and enables to understand the hidden thoughts and feelings of the consumers and enables to arrive at meaningful inferences.

Construction and validation of Entrepreneurship Attitude Orientation Scale (EAOS)

Kiranjeet Kaur and Latika Sharma
Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh (160014)

The Indian economy is expected to develop at persistently high rates throughout the following couple of decades and rise as the second biggest economy by 2050. India is blessed enough to have an enormous working age populace far surpassing those dependent on it and as indicated by World Bank, this pattern is required to proceed throughout the following three decades. This has progressively been perceived as a potential wellspring of noteworthiness for the national economy, if we can prepare and redesign the aptitudes of the populace in the working age group. The prevailing instructional framework produces students that are not quickly employable and skill up gradation at work is low; suggesting that an enormous segment of the present workforce has obsolete abilities. There is an extraordinary interest for a talented workforce which is receptive to developing enterprise and is equipped with requisite attitudes. It will give and improve the way of life with the protection against destitution, and in a way supporting national advancement. The present paper focuses on the need for developing a scale to assess entrepreneurial attitudes of undergraduate science students, the related researches and tools constructed so far as well as the steps employed in its construction and validation.

Members perception towards services provided by tribal co operative societies in Western Ghats regions of Attappady, Kerala

Commerce Assistant Professor Pg department of Commerce Yuvakshetra Institute of Management Studies Ezhakkad, Mundur, Kerala, 678631

This paper presents the members perception towards services provided by tribal co operative societies in Western Ghats regions of Attappady Kerala. The main focus of the paper was on to understand the member’s perception towards various services of four tribal sholayoor, kottathara, kurumba and pudur  co operative societies, the study mainly focused on the major three services like  Perception towards Procurement Strategy, Perception towards Financial Benefits, Perception towards Agricultural Services. The data for this study collected 115 respondents in Attappady tribal area in Kerala. Arithmetic mean standard deviation and ANOVA analysis was used for the analysis purpose and it is finding that the perception about the various services of tribal co operative societies. And this study tries to know whether there exists any significant difference with regard to various services.

Effect of print sizes and print colours on reading efficiency of upper primary school students in Uttar Pradesh

Dr. Pratibha Singh and Dr. Shilendra Pratap Singh
M.Sc., M.Ed., Ph.D. in Faculty of Education

Reading is more than talk written down. It is a complex act of recognizing visual symbols in terms of reader’s background of experiences.It is much more than just the mouthing of words from a page. Words mean nothing unless then convey the desired message to students. These words of Cushenbery (1969) clearly bring out the nature and significance of reading.
For the basic skills, reading is by far the most important, because of its predictive and general values to individual, reading is the first of the 3R’s which are to be cultivated in any system of education. Besides its roll in learning, it has an important place in leisure time activities of both children and adults. The ability to read well frequently and effectively promotes one's personal & social advancement. The proficient readers tend to be better informed & hence better citizens. In his essay 'Of studies' Francis Bason said, "Reading make it full man." He evidently attached great importance to reading. 

A roadmap to decarbonization of power sector using science based targets

Samriddhi Dongre and Anju Singh
Environmental Engineering and Management, NITIE, Mumbai

Looking with a circumstance where our fossil fuel based business has begun to decrease and has presented a genuine hazard to our future benefit, there is a need for companies to totally change plan of action to wind up into an environmentally sustainable organization. As far as Power sector is concerned, it is changing quickly and faces an enormous test for decarbonization. Strong emission reduction targets would help power companies to benefit from this move. Since, there remains no adequate clarity on what targets are to be set to reach a desired level of reduction, we would be using the new approach given by Science Based Targets called as Sectoral Decarbonization Approach (SDA) to the power sector to forecast the emission reduction targets. In this paper, we have analyzed by how much the scope 1 emission intensity of power sector should be brought down for a company while considering the sectoral carbon intensity, that is aligning the GHG reduction target of any individual company with the sectoral reduction pathways. In order to make sure, that the SDA methodology is consistent with the allotted carbon budget, we have assumed that within both the categories of companies either high emission intensity or low emission intensity, one company would be having an increasing growth rate per year, one would be having a declining market share per year and one would have a constant rate. The analysis has not only shown targets and variation in carbon intensity reduction but also absolute emission reductions providing a holistic approach for managing the potential risks in the short, medium as well as long term.

Educational Unemployment among Youths: A micro level study in Tinsukia district of Assam

Lipikajyoti Dowarah
Dibrugarh University,Bishmile,Chabua,Dibrugarh Assam,Pin Code: 786184

Education is the back bone of today’s modern societies. It is fundamental to every constituent of the society irrespective of gender, physical, racial, economic, geographical, cultural or linguistic differences. Lack of proper education, vocational guidance and inadequate job facilities is responsible for huge youth unemployment in India, especially unemployment among educated youths.  Educated Unemployment arises when a large number of educated people who are valuable resources of a nation are unable to secure a job. It leads to social tensions, unrest, and unlawful activities in the society. In Assam more than 15 lakh educated youths are unemployed. The present paper seeks to highlight the unemployment among the educated youths of Tinsukia district.

Stimulating factors in Developing Women Entrepreneurship in Rural Assam through Micro-Finance (A study of Jorhat District)

Ajit Chandra Das
Assistant Professor Department of Commerce J.B.College


Micro Finance refers to the entire range of financial and non-financial services, including skill up-gradation and entrepreneurship development rendered to the poor to get them tide-over poverty. The institutions which render such financial and non-financial services to its customers of vulnerable groups are called Micro-Finance Institution (MFIs) ; while the MFIs which do not provide any service other than concentrating on credit and resource mobilization, are called Micro-credit Institution (MCIs). The dividing line between the two may be elegant only theoretically with limited practical significance.  Because, for most of MFIs, micro-credit is the prime activity (Rathnam, 2009). As Micro Credit services came within ambit of Micro Finance services and as most of the institutions serving this cause of poor people identify themselves as MFIs, the present study uses the term “Micro-Finance” without any qualification as to whether the sample beneficiaries enjoy only micro- credit services or other services as well from their lending agencies. However, in deserving cases, terms micro credit and micro finance will be used interchangeably to represent the same idea.

Role of Adult Education in Sustainable Development

Dr. S. Kiran Singh
Assistant Professor Department of Education Thoubal College, Thoubal-795138, Manipur

Adult education as a qualitative attribute of the population is one of the most important indicators of socio-economic and political development of a society. It is a major component of Human Resource Development and is thus basic to any program of social and economic development. It is almost universally accepted that adult education plays an important role in national development.
The present paper explores the role of adult education in sustainable development and also highlights some of the importance and challenges faced in the bid to provide education for the adult population in North Eastern India in the globalization era. Objective of the study: To examine how adult education program could be utilized for sustainable development. Methodology: In order to make an in-depth study, the present paper is a descriptive study, based on secondary data collected from various books, journals, records and reports etc. Result: The paper concluded that without adult education, it is not possible to have that range and speed of economic and social development which we require nor it is possible to have that quality or tone to our economic and social development that makes it worthwhile in terms of values and welfare. A program of adult education should, therefore, take a front place in any program for social, economic and political development.

Motivational aspect of migration among brick kiln labours: a study of Kamrup district of Assam

Dr. AjijurRahman
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, University of science and Technology Meghalaya

This paper attempts to analyze different aspects of brick kilns labours, socio-economic condition of the brick Kilinglabour, working environment of the Brick Kilinglabour and migration among Brick Kilinglabours. Brick kilns in India are characterized by traditional modes of production, low capital intensity, seasonal employment patterns and lack of adequate regulations. The study was carried out to make a clear vision regarding economic, health, education and migration aspects etc. of the brick kiln workers.
Migration is the movement of people from one place to another place looking for various opportunities. Migration can be defined as the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location. The movement is often over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form globally. People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large group.

Female Economic and Development participation: A comparative study of India and Kerala

Dr Rejimon P.M
Assistant Professor, P.G.Research Department of Economics, Affiliated to University of Calicut Mar Dionysius College, Pazhanji, Thrissur,Kerala

The economic analysis of female work participation gained attention since the pioneering works of Becker and Cain.  The entry and participation of women in the labour market has been a major concern in labour economic research of present day. The present study tries to analyse the female labour market issue of India and Kerala in a frame work of U shaped relationship between female economic participation and development.  There is empirical evidence to support the U shaped relationship between female economic participation and Human development index, which can be taken as a proxy for development of a country.    The study gives adequate materials to prove that Kerala is in the third stage and India is in the first stage.  Hence, the labour market strategies for India may not be suitable for Kerala.  The study uses HDR 2010, UNDP data along with NSS 55th and 66th round unit level data of the analysis.

Bodo ethnic assertion and their socio-cultural and political awakening: An overview of the role of Brahma movement, Christian missionaries, Simon commission and the tribal league

Dr.Phanindra Kalita
Department of Political Science Assistant Professor Chhaygaon College, Chhaygaon Kamrup, Assam, India

The plains tribal communities in the north-eastern part of India never had a chance to represent themselves during the colonial period. This has caused deep political resentment among the plains tribes specially, the Bodos of Assam who feel that they have been neglected, exploited, alienated and discriminated against for decades. The main problems among them are establishment of their distinct ethnic identity, participation in the political affairs of the state, appointment in the Government jobs, lack of adequate facilities of modern system of education, land alienation, political neglect which become increasingly acute among themselves. Under the British umbrella, the ethnic population of the country was not comfortable with those policies which kept them to remain far distance from the main stream. This was happened in the case of the Bodo-Kacharis in the plains of Assam for which they were lagging behind their fellow Indians in terms of many aspects since long. Even after independence, due to the low rate of education and ignorance towards the system of education, the problem of getting occupational livelihood as well as employment remain major problems among the plains tribes of Assam in general and the Bodos in particular.These deprivations and discriminations developed a sense of political consciousness among the Bodos to secure their distinct identity, history, dignity and socio- economic and political justice in the dominated Assamese society. Hence, the Bodos are as of today and their socio-cultural and political aspiration is a result of efforts made by Brahma movement, Christian missionaries, Simon commission and the Tribal League in the early parts of 20th century.Their efforts, during that time became acute to make them conscious in socio-cultural and political fields for their ethnic assertion.Brahma movement inspired the first generation of Bodo leadership in the 20th century enabled them to raise their voice for their Bodo cause. It also tried to redefine the tribals tradition adjusting with the colonial modernity were regarded the first attempt towards the formation of the tribal identity. Likewise, Christianity has brought some remarkable changes in the history of Bodo society and its custom, habit, belief, values and their pattern of living. The opportunity of political move created by the British Simon commission for the tribals in the Brahmaputra Valley especially the Bodos sharpened and hence a common political platform for all plaintribals was created in the 1930’s under the bannership of All Assam Plains Tribes League (AAPTL) shortly Tribal League (TL) to fulfil their political aspirations with common efforts. 

A comparative study on expenditure pattern of senior citizens in rural and urban areas-With Special Reference to Virudhunagar District

Dr. A. Eronimus


India is a developing country where low infrastructural development coupled with high population growth has made the life of many poor people very difficult. Yet there is a wide range of variation on educational expenditure among different groups of people. Expenditure pattern plays a vital role in the economy in several ways. It is closely linked to elderly people’s poverty, wellbeing and living standards. Despite all these efforts we find that even now they continue to remain marginalized from enjoying the fruits of development. In this situation, the present study makes an attempt to analyse the socio-economic background and the expenditure pattern. The survey was conducted from 150 elderly people from rural and urban area from August 2017 to November 2017 in Virudhunagar District of Tamil Nadu.  The study has found that the levels of living of the rural households have been much improved, but proportionately  the prices of goods and services in the market have also increased, so the degree of improvement is not much high in comparison as it is visible.

Socio-Cultural Aspect of Women Vulnerability towards Sexual Transmitted Infection (STI)and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

PhD Scholar, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Delhi


The year between puberty and menopause is a new phase of physical, mental, and social development. However, this period can also be marked as the most critical phase in women’s lives especially in the context of her sexual health. A woman can fall into sexual health issues if she lacks the proper knowledge and voice, support and encouragement from people around her.  Health policy-makers must be concerned as this health risk may not only result in an increase of mortality and disability but many times gender differences and stigma associated with sexual life and health can destroy women’s life. Millions of cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI)are registered annually. Though most of these cases are treatable but many remain untreated due to difficulty in diagnosis, absence of proper health service and awareness and ignorance from the people towards the sexual issues. In patriarchal society women have to face the social stigmas associated with her sexuality and health. The paper aims to discuss how women’s sexual health is affected by gender and socio-cultural factors and how this increases her vulnerability to Sexually Transmitted Infections.

An analytical discussion about the concept of universal religion with the law of love for the peaceful living of the world people with special reference to Swami Vivekananda

Dr. Naba Kumar Kalita
Dept. of Philosophy Associate Prof. and HOD Chhaygaon College P.O-Chhaygaon, PIN-781124 Kamrup,Assam

The universal religion includes in its domain all the doctrines like dualism, qualified non-dualism and non-dualism, as the ultimate objective, i.e., God-realization is the same; the names or faiths or sadhanas merely differ, but the ultimate goal is one and the same. The followers of the doctrine of dualism accept the existence of a Creator different from the individuals and the world. The doctrine of qualified non-dualism is different from dualism. It puts that God is the biggest whole, whereas the individual souls are the parts. The non-dualism is again different from qualified non-dualism. Because it believes in every soul or everything is non-different from God, the Absolute. It has been expressed that the universal religion embraces all. Jesus Christ also realized this truth and so, he loved all beings and all creatures of the world. 
A question appears relevant—“What do we mean by love”? The concept of love points out the revelation of oneness. Love is nothing but the feeling of oneness. If one’s heart overflows with the ideals of Divine love, he will see that Divine Love is expressed in humanity and all human beings are but parts and parcels of one’s true Self.
In fact, universal religion does not consist in following a creed, or in believing in dogmas, doctrines or spiritual writings, nor it can be found in the banner of some particular prophets, by joining a sect or denomination, rather its objective is to upgrade the individual soul above the limitations of senses and bring it in close contact with the Infinite and to make it realize the absolute freedom from the bondage of ignorance, delusion, egoism, pride, ambition and all other imperfections that indicate human nature characteristically and keep us down in this world of transitory existence. Really speaking, universal religion is not only a belief in an aggregate of doctrines or dogmas, or in personal God. This religion does not denote a mere worship of some form of the Divinity and it is merely fear of, or reverence for God. It is not depending on absolute obedience to the Divine commands, but it remains, as Professor Max Muller says, in the perception of the Infinite through all such revelations as are capable of influencing the moral character of man. The perception of the Infinite or the realization of the Absolute Being, worshipped by various forms and names, is the essential point of all religions.

Setting up of Social Entrepreneurs AP,India

Head of the Department Department of Business Administration St.Ann’s College of Engineering and Technology


An entrepreneur is an individual who engages in some risk-taking behavior in the investment of resources to achieve a goal. Business entrepreneurs organize and manage resources to make profits and add value to their businesses; where as Social entrepreneurs seek to generate “social value” rather than profits. These entrepreneurs focus on particular social problems and draw on resources or an idea they have thought through to address the problems. Muhammad Yunus, who in 1983 founded the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, is a well known example of a social entrepreneur. He helped the poor in Bangladesh to escape poverty by organizing a micro-credit system with terms that helped them to get out of poverty. In this paper, I introduce the concept of Setting up and Management of Social Entrepreneurial activities, which would involve organize, create and manage a social venture to achieve a desired social change. They need to set up their objectives and work towards their achievement through managerial functions.